Summary / Abstract

Title: Family influences on self-reported delinquency among high school students

Synopsis: We investigated the links between perceived family relationships, parental discipline style, locus ofcontrol, self-esteem and self-reported delinquency among 177 Australian teenagers. The prediction that locus of control andself-esteem would mediate the effects of family process on delinquency was tested using structural equation modelling. Althoughthere appeared to be a good fit between the data and the proposed model, the amount of variance explained by the predictorvariables was not large. Among females, the best predictor of low levels of self-reported delinquency was an inductive disciplinestyle, whilst for males high levels of self-reported delinquency were best predicted by a punitive discipline style. Among males,positive family relations was a significant predictor of high self-esteem. No mediating effects of self-esteem and locus of controlwere observed. The findings are discussed with reference to previous research, and some implications for clinical practice are alsonoted. self reported delinquency, self esteem, control, adolescents, discipline style, locus, males, females, family relations, Australian, family influences, positive family relations, punitive discipline style, high school students, inductive discipline style, predictor, structural equation modelling, family process, proposed model, respondents, negative family relations, family members, personality, occupations, external locus, mediating effect, discipline style whilst, perceptions, clinical practice, York Basic Books,

Related links for: Family influences on self-reported delinquency among high school students

Additional keywords for: Family influences on self-reported delinquency among high school students

journal adolescence 1996 19 557 568 family influences self reported delinquency high school students nadine c peiser patrick c l heaven investigated links perceived family relationships parental discipline style locus control self esteem self reported delinquency 177 australian teenagers prediction locus control self esteem mediate effects family process delinquency tested structural equation modelling appeared good fit data proposed model amount variance explained predictor variables large females best predictor low levels self reported delinquency inductive discipline style whilst males high levels self reported delinquency best predicted punitive discipline style males positive family relations significant predictor high self esteem mediating effects self esteem locus control observed findings discussed reference previous research implications clinical practice noted 1996 association professionals services adolescents introduction extent family characteristics personality factors shape self reported delinquent behaviours teenagers documented family functioning affects emotional adjustment members individual pathology family members manifested neurotic symptoms low self esteem dissatisfaction life circumstances found significantly related level interpersonal pathology displayed family manifested intermember conflict low solidarity member dissatisfaction scott scott 1987 negative evaluations family relations parents offspring shown related adverse judgements family process factors identified important shaping adolescents emotional health parenting styles family communication parental pathology separation divorce family conflict adolescent perceptions family name heaven 1994a present research attention paid influence family relations parental discipline style self reported delinquency assessment made extent relationships mediated personality factors locus control self esteem family factors delinquency influence family adolescent behaviour best understood reprint requests correspondence addressed dr p c l heaven department psychology university wollongong northfields avenue wollongong nsw 2522 australia 0140 1971 96 06055712 25 00 0 1996 association professionals services adolescents 558 n c peiser p c l heaven terms social cognitive theory e g muuss 1988 king et al 1995 approach emphasises importance observational learning modelling imitation human development teenagers learn different behaviours identifying salient parents peers recently research team investigated relationship adolescent parental perceptions family members interact feel official self reported delinquency krohn et al 1992 found parental adolescent family process measures made independent significant contributions explanation delinquent behaviour researchers suggest groups delinquents perceive families considerably cohesive expressive lower levels independence members members control groups delinquents perceive families higher levels control participate social recreational activities compared families bischof et al 1995 similarly negative communication parents found significantly related self reported interpersonal violence males heaven 1994b whilst delinquent boys likely receive praise mother father non delinquents cortes gatti 1972 addition general family functioning present study pay specific attention role parental discipline style predicting self reported delinquency researchers shown parents discipline style associated adolescent delinquency aggression e g loeber dishion 1983 snyder patterson 1987 patterson et al 1989 shaw scott 1991 farrington 1992 longitudinal study lefkowitz et al 1978 showed self ratings aggression significantly correlated parental corporal punishment recently shaw scott 1991 found perceived punitive love withdrawal discipline style positively associated self reported delinquency induction found negatively associated self reported delinquency australian teenagers hypothesis 1 negative perceptions family relationships directly related high self reported delinquency scores hypothesis 2 punitive parent discipline style love withdrawal related higher levels self reported delinquency inductive discipline style related low self reported delinquency mediating role personality empirical evidence suggest personality factors mediate effects family experiences delinquency shaw scott 1991 observed adolescents locus control mediated relationship parent discipline style self reported delinquency words punitive parenting parental love withdrawal significantly associated increased reports delinquency effects mediated external locus control hand self reported delinquent activity decreased inductive parenting experienced effect mediated internal locus control important note links demonstrated parent discipline style self esteem hand self esteem delinquency 559 family influences self reported delinquency newman murray 1983 instance found coercive inductive methods parenting combined low levels parental support produced lowered selfconfidence self esteem adolescents problems identity formation externalized moral standards susceptibility peer pressure documented delinquents obtain significantly lower scores measures cognitive social general self worth scales non delinquents e g singh et al 1986 hilmi 1988 cole et al 1989 evans et al 1991 results possibility exists addition locus control self esteem mediate effect parental influences self reported delinquency possible youth engage delinquent antisocial behaviours externally controlled low self esteem important assess mediating influence hypothesis 3 self esteem locus control mediate effect perceived family processes self reported delinquency specifically i greater evidence presence family relationship problems punitive discipline style parental lovewithdrawal related lower self esteem external locus control likely lead higher levels self reported delinquency ii inductive discipline style related higher self esteem internal locus control likely lead lower levels self reported delinquency method respondents sample consisted 105 female 72 male high school students aged 15 16 years mean age 15 3 years students came three high schools two public private illawarra region new south wales respondents asked provide information living arrangements education current occupation parent important stress respondents normal range adolescents classified offenders 80 respondents reported living home parents 9 lived home mother remainder reported living mother partner 6 2 father partner 2 3 father 1 7 guardian 0 6 1 respondents preferred provide information parental occupation categorized daniel 1983 prestige scale ranks occupations australia high prestige 1 2 low prestige 6 9 table 1 shows occupational prestige parents involved wide range occupations evident sample middle class bias suggested sample representative australian adolescents appears sufficiently heterogeneous purposes study measures respondents completed questionnaire booklet containing measures 1 self reported delinquency gold 1970 14 item self report measure see table 2 assesses interpersonal violence six items vandalism theft eight items 560 n c peiser p c l heaven successfully previous research e g shaw scott 1991 heaven 1994b present occasion cronbach alpha coefficient 0 84 research utilises self report measure delinquency worth noting writers argued close relationship exists officially adjudicated self reported delinquency reicher emler 1985 shaw scott 1991 2 index family relations hudson 1982 25 item scale measures extent severity magnitude problems family members perceive relationships excellent internal consistency known groups validity good construct validity corcoran fisher 1987 present occasion thought advisable assess structure measure item intercorrelations subjected principal components analysis orthogonal rotation two components extracted labelled positive family relations negative family relations two factors shown alpha coefficients 0 94 0 93 respectively eigenvalues 13 57 1 45 respectively accounted 54 3 5 8 total variance respectively sample items positive family relations scale members family good family real source comfort sample items negative family relations scale i feel like stranger family hatred family 3 parent discipline style shaw scott 1991 scale measures three discipline styles perceived parental punitiveness perceived parental lovewithdrawal perceived parental inductiveness open communicative style present occasion alpha coefficients 0 86 0 74 0 85 respectively 4 self esteem rosenberg 1979 known 10 item scale provides measure global self esteem demonstrated reliability validity e g chiu 1988 present occasion cronbach alpha 0 84 high scores indicate high selfesteem table 1 parents occupational prestige parents occupations frequency n 177 father mother father mother 1 1 9 1 0 0 6 0 0 2 2 9 15 3 8 5 1 7 3 3 9 45 42 25 4 23 7 4 4 9 52 46 29 4 26 0 5 5 9 37 63 20 9 35 6 6 6 9 8 8 4 5 4 5 retired unemployed 10 14 5 6 7 9 know 3 0 1 7 0 0 unanswered 6 1 3 4 0 6 prestige categories daniel 1983 1 1 9 e g judge medical specialist 2 2 9 e g architect accountant solicitor 3 3 9 e g teacher small businessperson trained nurse computer programmer draftsperson 4 4 9 e g tradesperson police constable technician caterer industrial foreman 5 5 9 e g driver taxi bus linesman gardener nurse aid postal clerk housewife 6 6 9 e g railway worker factory worker labourer process worker 561 family influences self reported delinquency 5 locus control nowicki strickland 1973 short form generalised scale designed grades 7 12 present occasion cronbach alpha 0 78 scale good concurrent validity correlating significantly measures locus control corcoran fisher 1987 items scored direction externality procedure students provided letter researcher inviting participate study aspects home life personal attitudes behaviours consent students parents guardian questionnaire administered school hours authors students assured anonymity confidentiality information research purposes questionnaire 15 30 minutes complete results descriptive statistics table 2 presents proportion respondents indicating involvement table 2 percentage respondents engaged behaviours behaviour twice 1 hurt badly need bandages doctor 74 22 2 8 1 1 2 got serious fight student school 68 4 28 8 2 3 0 6 3 got telling person bad happen get wanted 70 6 23 7 5 1 0 6 4 hit teacher 99 4 0 6 0 0 0 0 5 taken fight group friends group 51 4 39 0 7 3 2 3 6 knife gun thing get person 96 6 1 7 1 1 0 6 7 taken car didn t belong family permission owner 93 2 5 1 1 1 0 6 8 taken belonging worth 50 00 27 7 47 5 20 3 4 5 9 gone land house building supposed 35 0 43 5 17 5 4 0 10 fire property purpose 88 7 9 0 2 3 0 0 11 damaged school property purpose 49 7 39 0 10 2 1 1 12 taken shop paying 33 9 41 8 17 5 5 6 13 taken belonging worth 50 00 83 1 11 9 4 0 1 1 14 taken expensive car permission owner 93 2 4 5 1 1 1 1 562 n c peiser p c l heaven delinquent acts teenagers answered item indicative fact described normal range adolescents important note sizeable number engage behaviours twice table 3 presents means standard deviations measures females males consistent previous research males scored significantly higher female counterparts self reported delinquency measure e g bryan freed 1982 shaw scott 1991 self esteem measure heaven 1993 significant sex differences subsequent analyses conducted separately females males correlational analyses pearson correlations presented males females table 4 evident great majority correlations expected direction significant 0 01 level males females positive family relations positively related high selfesteem negatively related external locus control negatively related selfreported delinquency negative family relations hand significantly related low self esteem scores high external locus control high levels selfreported delinquency punitive discipline style significantly related external locus control high table 3 mean scores standard deviations measures measures females males t m d m d self reported delinquency 18 69 3 90 21 17 5 49 3 52 positive family relationships 47 01 9 84 46 11 9 21 0 61 negative family relations 26 71 10 63 25 89 9 67 0 52 punitive discipline style 41 30 9 52 43 68 9 71 1 62 love withdrawal 15 25 4 81 16 06 4 36 1 14 inductive discipline style 28 82 6 63 28 61 6 18 0 21 self esteem 6 35 2 76 7 40 2 30 2 66 locus control 42 75 7 26 44 26 7 17 1 37 p 0 01 table 4 pearson correlations measures 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 delinquency 0 41 0 50 0 35 0 31 0 33 0 32 0 45 2 positive family 0 43 0 86 0 37 0 47 0 47 0 60 0 51 3 negative family 0 45 0 88 0 50 0 51 0 38 0 65 0 52 4 punitiveness 0 36 0 50 0 50 0 37 0 23 0 20 0 37 5 love withdrawal 0 41 0 39 0 48 0 42 0 11 0 28 0 50 6 inductiveness 0 30 0 36 0 35 0 21 0 22 0 33 0 32 7 self esteem 0 31 0 43 0 52 0 37 0 36 0 21 0 46 8 locus control 0 30 0 53 0 54 0 46 0 53 0 40 0 48 females diagonal p 0 05 p 0 01 563 family influences self reported delinquency pfr nfr pun lw ind se srd loc 0 21 ind induction se self esteem lw love withdrawal pun punitive discipline style srd self reported delinquency pfr positive family relations nfr negative family relations loc locus control figure 1 path diagram causal relationships females self reported delinquency sexes significantly related low self esteem females parental love withdrawal significantly related low self esteem external locus control high levels self reported delinquency sexes parental induction significantly related high self esteem internal locus control lower levels self reported delinquency sexes sexes positive self esteem significantly related low levels self reported delinquency external locus control significantly related high levels self reported delinquency structural equation modelling order test proposed model family processes predict self reported delinquency mediated self esteem locus control data subjected covariance analysis sas procedure proc calis sas 1990 technique allows researchers explore constructs inter relationships causal contributions constructs allows thorough inclusive analysis causal paths lead delinquency sullivan wilson 1995 p 11 table 5 goodness fit indicators model goodness fit indicators chi square df gfi agfi rmsr females 7 8211 7 0 9845 0 8781 0 0784 males 9 5849 7 0 9757 0 8094 0 1068 gfi goodness fit index agfi adjusted goodness fit index rmsr root mean square residual 564 n c peiser p c l heaven pfr nfr pun lw ind se srd loc 0 41 0 30 ind induction se self esteem loc locus control pun punitive discipline style srd self reported delinquency pfr positive family relations nfr negative family relations lw love withdrawal figure 2 path diagram causal relationships males main results shown table 5 suggest good fit proposed model data chi square values non significant suggesting plausibility model variance females males self reported delinquency explained predictor variables large 12 15 respectively proc calis generates output indicating significant links model expressed standardised coefficients see fassinger 1987 links shown figures 1 females 2 males clear best predictor low levels self reported delinquency females inductive discipline style males best predictor high levels self reported delinquency punitive discipline style males positive family relations significant predictor high selfesteem contrary expected self esteem locus control mediating effect sample adolescents discussion general findings aim research evaluate effect family processes adolescents self reported delinquency investigate self esteem locus control mediate effects results comparable previous research findings suggest perceived family process significantly related delinquency adolescent respondents results structural equation modelling support expectation parental discipline style predicts self reported delinquency inductive discipline style best predictor low levels self reported delinquency females punitive discipline style best predicted high levels self reported delinquency males findings 565 family influences self reported delinquency reflect sex differences respondents experiences discipline reported males receive corporal punishment females e g bryan freed 1982 predicted perceived family relationship problems related lower self esteem external locus control turn lead higher levels self reported delinquency results indicated link positive family relations high self esteem male sample mediating effect evident sexes results males line findings demo et al 1987 found selfesteem males strongly influenced parent adolescent interaction females explanation gender difference females self esteem affected family processes present study demo et al 1987 family variables considered research type frequency verbal criticism parents parental deviance sibling relationships edgar 1995 points parents differential treatment siblings quite apart females experience family perception e g body image affect self esteem greater extent case males age group e g furnham radley 1989 contrary expectations structural equation modelling found mediating effect selfesteem locus control family processes self reported delinquency shaw scotts 1991 results mediating effect locus control parent discipline styles self reported delinquency replicated explain difference shaw scott 1991 larger sample n 231 analysed data regression analyses present study structural equation modelling sophisticated form analysis appropriate reliably testing links exist independent dependent variables implications findings clinical practice type discipline style parents direct effect children behaviour advisable devise intervention strategies children parents e g nelsen 1987 edgar 1995 edgar 1995 suggests parent education information programmes conducted raise awareness parents parents regarding parenting communication skills nelsen 1987 presents principles based adlerian philosophy successfully provided parents basic guidelines parenting practical techniques programmes developed teach teenagers prosocial behaviour instance adlerian counselling programme developed united states appears effective teaching parents professionals assist children managing misbehaviour help learn self discipline responsibility problem solving skills co operation based nelsen 1987 principles likewise australian guidance counselling association recently conducted national project teaching prosocial behaviour adolescents identified programmes australian schools prescott 1995 programmes address issues social skilling development peer relations conflict resolution anger management assertiveness training developing life skills 566 n c peiser p c l heaven utilization interventions designed enhance emotional support bonding family members considered bischof et al 1995 appropriate families delinquents teaching express feelings directly increasing participation social recreational activities suggest comprehensive understanding family valuable individual intervention planning research dunn plomin 1990 identifies clear links child perception differential treatment siblings parents affection control outcomes antisocial behaviour depression light edgar 1995 p 20 view relevant message clinicians differences similarities family behaviour child matter parents need understand children highly sensitive differential treatment siblings appreciation expressed child unique combination intelligences competences helpful unjust comparisons preferential treatment implications research results study show variables considered provide thorough explanation sample self reported delinquency previous writers considered wide range factors genetics parental criminality family size low income socio economic status separation family child academic social skills peer influences personality characteristics psychoticism ineffective parenting practices e g loeber dishion 1983 patterson dishion 1985 binder 1988 cole et al 1989 heaven 1994b 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