Summary / Abstract

Title: Promoting cognitive and ego development of African–American rural youth: a program of deliberate psychologicaleducation

Synopsis: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a role-taking, action learning program onthe cognitive and ego development of African–American rural high school students. The program employed instruction inscientific problem-solving in relation to past and current contributions of African–American scientists. There were twoexperimental and two comparison groups during the one semester program. The main effects were assessed in two related domains: (1)concrete to abstract thinking (a Piagetian measure); and (2) self-concept development (Loevinger's Ego Stages). The resultsindicated statistically significant gains in both abstract thinking and ego stage. Implications for school curriculum modificationare also detailed. students, school, ego development, African American, deliberate psychological education, adolescents, statistically significant, high school, statistically significant gains, self, Sprinthall, abstract thinking, Faubert, grade, ego stage, comparison groups, American rural youth, DPE model, gender school, American scientists, contributions, interactions, gain scores, SCT gain scores, DPE intervention, self concept, related domains, problem solving, program employed instruction, Locke Norman,

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Additional keywords for: Promoting cognitive and ego development of African–American rural youth: a program of deliberate psychologicaleducation

journal adolescence 1996 19 533 543 promoting cognitive ego development african american rural youth program deliberate psychological education marie faubert don c locke norman sprinthall william h howland purpose study investigate effects role taking action learning program cognitive ego development african american rural high school students program employed instruction scientific problem solving relation past current contributions african american scientists two experimental two comparison groups semester program main effects assessed two related domains 1 concrete abstract thinking piagetian measure 2 self concept development loevinger ego stages results indicated statistically significant gains abstract thinking ego stage implications school curriculum modification detailed 1996 association professionals services adolescents introduction deliberate psychological education dpe intentional educational intervention purpose provide students optimal zones proximal development vygotsky 1978 order enhance growth particular domain developmental paradigm purports research provides strong evidence adolescent growth enhanced interaction caring skilled adults peers context planned executed curriculum utilizes dpe model essential components dpe model support challenge continuity praxis context challenge zone proximal development intervention provides emotional cognitive support purpose enhancing growth significant amount time continuity intervention praxis combination participant action reflection action great deal evidence dpe effective promoting abstract thinking ego stage development adolescents dpe model resulted significant conceptual ego development adolescents dpe model develop listening communication skills empathy social role taking assertive behavior skills discussion moral dilemmas investigators found significant gains ego moral reasoning kessler et al 1986 p 5 nine studies supervised authors 1971 1989 78 dpe interventions resulted statistically significant gains washington university sentence completion test reprint requests correspondence addressed m faubert c j ed d director counselor education university saint thomas houston tx 77006 u 0140 1971 96 06053311 25 00 0 1996 association professionals services adolescents 534 m faubert et al dpe model demonstrate moral growth growth interpersonal relations ego development adolescents mosher sullivan 1976 chiosso 1976 cognetta 1977 exum 1977 1980 kwasnick 1982 schmidt 1992 sprinthall scott 1989 reported promotion psychological growth high school females locke zimmerman 1987 analysed effects dpe african american college students sprinthall 1991 reported number statistically significant dpe studies moral development results statistically significant lanier 1993 conducted dpe intervention rural high school peer mentoring try enhance conceptual level ego development research reported study demonstration effectiveness dpe african american rural adolescents illustrates dpe model effective promoting abstract thinking ego stage development students combination factors resulted researchers choosing scientific method investigation context apply dpe model african american rural high school students first edwards 1976 lee 1984 1985 1989 reporting factors leading success african american adolescents factors special interest researchers social network outside family opportunity identify role models active participation school activities positive educational experiences school providing major social outlet strong future orientation based realism high educational occupational goals expectations positive realistic view self ability lead follow focused interests developed views nature success moderate degree african american consciousness researchers hypothesized corroborate findings edwards lee second first author great deal experience teacher science african american adolescents scientific method investigation context support challenge dpe model foster success students research vehicle determining delivering quality program effective outcomes logical step investigating methods author developed researchers hypothesized provide statistical evidence methods effective third county university authors worked located rural students general african american rural students particular neglected county overwhelmingly urban suburban high education rate inhabitants consequently authors earned grant form bellsouth foundation dpe model enhance cognitive ego strengths sample african american rural adolescents summary researchers interest commitment enhancing quality education offered african american rural students program attempt modify classroom environment special program titled getting right track created tested two rural schools content focused learning think like scientist group 9th 10th graders topics selected basis relevance african heritage contributions african 535 promoting cognitive ego development american scientists learning scientific method i e hypothesis testing inductive deductive reasoning students exposed wide range ideas direct experience applying methods science content historically relevant process combination action reflection add emphasis experiential component program special adaptation added role taking activity students learn science doing science placed communal role helping peer 10th grade students trained peer helpers 9th grade colleagues accomplish goals 1 develop understanding means say science making meaning history experience 2 choose research topic 3 search literature 4 write research question 5 report findings orally writing 6 persevere closure 7 prepare science research celebration 8 participate science research celebration 9 evaluate research mentor mentee experiences 10th grade mentors required meet 9th grade mentees 15 minutes week time time 10th grade mentors encourage 9th grade mentees active listening empathic responding graduate assistant state university county met 10th graders week semester graduate assistant met 9th graders week semester director getting right track project two site facilitator counselors african american graduate student european american graduate student native american time issues skills mentoring processed research projects developed three times semester 9th 10th graders met work directly research projects three sessions 10th grade mentor met corresponding 9th grade mentee direction graduate assistants praxis reflection action continuity challenge support indicated necessary significant growth sprinthall 1991 action component praxis role taking participants scientists co operatively designing performing research projects resulted displaying results research science research celebration 10th grade participants mentors 9th grade participants research process reflection praxis sharing weekly sessions graduate assistants participants processed feelings concerning mentors mentored context research process continuity provided carrying intervention 5 month period students made meaning mutual interaction mentor mentee fingarette 1963 meaning making definition ego loevinger wessler 1970 p 8 call meaning making essence ego dpe 536 m faubert et al reported goals ego development provides opportunity meaning making noted introduction prior research shown role taking careful continuous reflection positive impact academic achievement psychological development placing students role helper tutor students learn leadership skills apply academic content consideration programs referred deliberate psychological education dpe goal helper tutors helped tutored specifically promote levels psychological growth study domains cognitive ego development programs shown produce positive results groups i e student tutors mentors students receiving tutoring mentoring assistance current investigation aspects standard school curricula modified noted focus science context african american heritage methods participants participants public 9th 10th grade african american students two rural high schools central north carolina socio economic status ses participants families schools semi skilled skilled poor working class families limited educational background families education high school sizable number participants schools qualified free lunch reduced cost lunch school 1 100 rural participant families owned family farms worked farms owned farms limited education non farm semi skilled skilled professions families participants school 1 229 african american students 108 male 121 female total student body 957 23 9 school 2 50 rural participant families worked rural areas worked city participants rural backgrounds school 2 246 african american students 129 male 117 female total student body 1146 21 5 middle schools fed high schools experienced middle school counselors asked middle achieving college potential rural african american students needed motivation list students provided experienced middle school counselors two rural high schools experienced high school counselors chose 20 students experimental groups e1 e2 e3 e4 close 20 students possible comparison groups c1 c2 c3 c4 20 students requested comparison groups possible 20 students fitted requirements study middle achieving college potential rural need motivation comparison groups 20 students addition students completed pretest post test statistical analysis actual numbers represented statistical analysis follows e1 consisted eight males 10 females total 18 c1 consisted 537 promoting cognitive ego development five males six females total 11 e2 consisted eight males 11 females total 19 c2 consisted six males seven females total 13 e3 consisted 10 males 10 females total 20 c3 consisted two males six females total eight e4 consisted seven males 12 females total 19 c4 consisted six males nine females total 15 school 1 supplied students e1 9th grade c1 9th grade e2 10th grade c2 10th grade school 2 supplied students e3 9th grade c3 9th grade e4 10th grade c4 10th grade instruments time interval pretests post tests 5 months experimental comparison groups administered piaget pencil paper instrument piaget developed pisila tauffe ulungaki specialist test measurements university minnesota test cognitive domain piaget designate unnamed test appears book published authors sprinthall sprinthall 1990 pp 128 132 permission piaget validated present study attempt provide construct validation instrument washington university sentence completion test sct developed loevinger loevinger wessler 1970 loevinger et al 1970 measure ego domain piaget test first six items measure performance concrete operations point correct answer last six items measure performance formal operations two points correct answer research validated piagetian measures cognitive development cross culturally adolescents upper volta region africa african sites dasen heron 1981 tapp 1981 case 1992 sct semi structured measure eighteen 36 possible sentence stems chosen holt 1980 substantial reliability items test loevinger wessler 1970 18 items selected face validity appropriate african american rural youth separate form males females thirteen items common tests three items different gender stem mother i father i faking issue sct redmore 1976 interrater reliability two raters 252 items resulted 88 9 agreement scores assigned ogive rules suggested test manual loevinger wessler 1970 ogive rules involve weighted scale applied provides total protocol rating tpr based stages ego development loevinger wessler 1970 loevinger 1976 separate analysis covariance piaget sct gain scores performed gender school grade experimental control groups independent variables pretest piaget sct scores covariates two tailed tests significance employed results quasi experimental designs play key role cross cultural research jahoda 1980 p 73 quasi experimental design appropriate natural social settings campbell 538 m faubert et al stanley 1963 p 34 pre experimental sampling equivalence campbell stanley 1963 p 47 design study adapted nonequivalent control group design campbell stanley 1963 p 47 study statistical evidence supports presumptions equivalence experimental control groups pretest statistically significant differences piaget table 1 table squares means piaget gain scores level n mean standard error mean 123 0 715 0 228 gender m 52 1 132 0 357 f 71 0 299 0 283 school 1 61 0 818 0 306 2 62 0 613 0 339 grade 10th 66 0 935 0 297 9th 57 0 495 0 352 group e 76 1 183 0 270 c 47 0 247 0 369 gender school m 1 27 0 938 0 454 m 2 25 1 325 0 551 f 1 34 0 697 0 409 f 2 37 0 100 0 393 gender grade m 10th 27 1 321 0 449 m 9th 25 0 942 0 557 f 10th 39 0 549 0 383 f 9th 32 0 479 0 427 gender group 33 2 130 0 407 mc 19 0 134 0 589 fe 43 0 236 0 354 fc 28 0 361 0 443 school grade 1 10th 32 0 736 0 419 1 9th 29 0 899 0 447 2 10th 34 1 135 0 417 2 9th 28 0 091 0 540 school group 1 e 37 1 346 0 583 1 c 24 0 289 0 475 2 e 39 1 100 0 378 2 c 23 0 205 0 563 grade group 10th e 38 1 489 0 385 10th c 28 0 382 0 448 9th e 38 0 878 0 383 9th c 19 0 113 0 588 539 promoting cognitive ego development sct scores experimental groups corresponding comparison groups groups chosen randomly researchers confident experimental comparison groups study statistically equivalent cognitive ego domains analysis cognitive domain data main effects analysis cognitive data covariate pretest piaget scores main effects gender school grade group statistically significant main effect group f 1 1 4 17 p0 05 tendency statistical significance gender f 1 1 3 36 p0 07 expected experimental groups receiving dpe found demonstrate significantly greater gains cognitive abilities controlling initial cognitive skills main effect males experimental groups greatest table 1 reports squares means piaget gain scores gender school grade yield statistically significant main effects expected interactions statistically significant interactions gender group f 1 1 5 39 p0 02 trend three interaction gender school group f 1 1 3 45 p0 07 interactions found 11 possible combinations interactions expected analysis ego development data main effects analysis ego stage data pretest sct scores covariate main effects gender school grade group statistically significant main effect group f 1 1 17 81 p0 05 tendency statistical significance gender f 1 1 3 20 p0 08 expected experimental groups receiving dpe found demonstrate significantly greater gains ego development controlling initial ego stage main effect females experimental groups greatest table 2 reports squares means sct gain scores gender school grade yield statistically significant main effects expected interactions statistically significant interactions trend three interaction gender school grade f 1 1 3 50 p0 06 interactions found 11 possible combinations interactions expected discussion two major empirical measures supported positive outcomes getting right track project assessment cognitive growth concrete literal thinking ability think abstractly scientifically results indicated statistically significant gains pretest piaget sct scores covariates shift concrete formal thinking takes place requires substantial time period 540 m faubert et al estimates run high 4 5 years renner et al 1976 findings main effect group statistically significant supports effectiveness dpe intervention results cognitive aspect study suggest critical african american rural youth opportunity develop higher order intellectual table 2 table squares means sct gain scores level n mean standard error mean 123 0 225 0 121 gender m 52 0 002 0 195 f 71 0 452 0 154 school 1 61 0 367 0 162 2 62 0 083 0 180 grade 10th 66 0 029 0 156 9th 57 0 421 0 187 group e 76 0 736 0 143 c 47 0 286 196 gender school m 1 27 0 278 0 246 m 2 25 0 282 0 296 f 1 34 0 456 0 222 f 2 37 0 489 0 209 gender grade m 10th 27 0 387 0 238 m 9th 25 0 383 0 306 f 10th 39 0 445 0 203 f 9th 32 0 459 0 226 gender group 33 0 370 0 218 mc 19 0 374 0 317 fe 43 1 101 0 189 fc 28 0 197 0 238 school grade 1 10th 32 0 298 0 224 1 9th 29 0 436 0 238 2 10th 34 0 240 0 218 2 9th 28 0 406 0 287 school group 1 e 37 0 880 0 204 1 c 24 0 146 0 253 2 e 39 0 593 0 201 2 c 23 0 426 0 299 grade group 10th e 38 0 575 0 205 10th c 28 0 517 0 235 9th e 38 0 897 0 202 9th c 19 0 313 0 313 541 promoting cognitive ego development skills current program offers evidence dpe intervention considered step desired direction development cognitive growth second measure instrument self concept ego development results indications higher levels ego development adolescents begin demonstrate greater autonomy reliance self firmer sense identity greater reliance independent problem solving loevinger 1976 arguable point important building academic skills promoting self reliance case view solution interactive helping students develop thinking skills simultaneously helping connect valued heritage choose important equally relevant self reliance strong ego make cognitive deficit cognitive growth generalize self reliance strong ego fact urge future innovative educational programs seek dual goals major objectives certainly clear based qualitative subjective observation students experimental classes potent learners self confident students student wrote getting right track helped know goals future shared getting right track helped develop skills i prepared college stated getting right track helped think values life participant wrote getting right track helped broaden horizons faubert 1992 p 132 addition greater active participation class officers school club members heightened involvement schools support quantitative findings african american rural youth participated planned program manifested motivation enthusiastically attending planning reflection sessions taking responsibilities seriously working diligently african centered research projects presenting poise competence science festival positive attitude behavior students provided evidence african american rural adolescents growth cognitive ego domains african american rural youth participated dpe independently sought know africa african americans asked penetrating questions african american students standardized tests tests norm groups explored reasons appropriate name african american investigated contributions africans african americans mathematics sciences investigated mathematical scientific questions conclusion current study designed investigation role taking action learning program african american secondary students rural setting program focused thinking skills science connected african american african contributors goal two fold promote increase cognitive formal operations increase personal ego strength autonomy results indicated statistically significant positive changes formal operations level ego development extensive subjective qualitative narratives cross validated empirical outcomes 542 m faubert et al program serves curriculum reform secondary schools materials methods modified order adequately provide african american rural students 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