Summary / Abstract

Title: Commentary: Identity, context, and development

Synopsis: Journal of Adolescence 1996 19 491 496 Commentary Identity context and development LUC GOOSSENS AND JEAN S PHINNEY Following Marcia?s seminal work 1966 1980 most identity researchers have chosen the individual... context, culture, adolescence, identity formation, psychology, socializing, environment, exploration, ways, empirische, self, papers, influences, Phinney, society, transitions, diffusion, personality, patterns, community, Goossens, pathways, evidence, Kroger, Western countries, Waterman, Marcia, American, Cole, implications,

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journal adolescence 1996 19 491 496 commentary identity context development luc goossens jean phinney marcia seminal work 1966 1980 identity researchers chosen individual primary unit analysis ignored contexts identity formation takes place neglect surprising view erikson writings topic emphasize importance context erikson 1968 described identity formation process located core individual core communal culture p 22 italics original recent conceptual writings identity suggested importance context e g markstrom adams 1992 widely cited article grotevant 1987 identified number contexts assumed important identity formation culture society family peers social work environments contextual influences identity development largely neglected empirical research difficulty determining best conceptualize context study relationship identity problem understanding role context study development seen changing models contextualism study adolescence past two decades steinberg 1995 central question researchers interested identity development actual processes forms interaction link individual psychological development sociocultural environment domain identity formation contributors special issue approached question variety ways specifically call attention intra individual interpersonal family community historical cultural factors interact complex ways process identity formation discuss first meanings context role development portrayed papers special issue explore broader issue historical cultural contexts identity formation consider implications future research context process cole 1995 points term context two distinct ways social scientists first meaning term surrounds concept closely related bronfenbrenner 1979 model concentric circles represent different levels context co teŽ article suggests model distinguishing three levels analysis social structure political economic systems interaction patterns occur socializing institutions personality empirical articles issue 0140 1971 96 05049106 18 00 0 1996 association professionals services adolescents 492 l goossens j phinney paper nurmi colleagues portrays rural urban environments differing contexts surround adolescents provide different opportunities second meaning term context weaves cole 1995 conception objects contexts arise single bio social cultural process development cole 1995 p 109 formulation related role culture development shweder sullivan 1993 refer culture psyche make p 498 papers issue acknowledge mutual influence individual context process identity formation baumeister muraven emphasize identity reflects adaptation individuals sociocultural context construct self definition allows get particular environment co te develops concept identity capital individuals invest identity capital seen consisting tangible assets socially visible derive largely environment intangible psychological assets ego strength self efficacy latter particular give individuals capacity understand negotiate obstacles opportunities afforded environment adams marshall point ways macro micro environmental features influence identity formation shared values norms socially constructed communicated signs symbols meanings specifically contextual influences mediated interpersonal processes specified theoretical papers considers ways individual context interact process identity formation empirical papers illustrate different attempts study complex process empirically kvernmo heyerdahl examine influence community sami ethnic identity activities sami culture expressed enacted home time individual adolescent makes choices extent identify sami bicultural norwegian choices selfidentification turn related ethnic behaviours attitudes awareness outcome incorporates aspects context choices made individual shorter gooden washington actually metaphor weaving identity study african american women show particular problems racism sexism faced women contribute development personal strength key self definition survival fall back oneself strength thought intangible aspects identity capital described co te Ž kroger green illustrate clearly active role individual relative context identity development study shows contextual factors exposure new environments significant events associated age social change influence identity formation internal changes personal discontent altered perspective heightened awareness emerge important determinants changes identity status individual interprets events situations relationships environment important events conceptual empirical papers present concept context weaves provide preliminary evidence ways interaction person context take place remains future researchers flesh general conception 493 commentary historical cultural contexts role historical change development rarely studied psychologists recent book attempts examine development children historical perspective elder et al 1993 noteworthy two papers special issue co te baumeister muraven explore historical influences identity formation baumeister muraven describe historical changes identity emphasizing ways identities adapted social cultural context time absence strong values contemporary society led elevation self self interest self actualization major value base additional historical changes noted co te Ž suggests identity diffusion traditionally considered developed identity status culturally adaptive form identity supported current cultural environment replacing identity achievement cultural norm empirical studies issue address idea recent studies provide support change marcia 1989 kraus mitzscherlich 1995 report evidence culturally adaptive strategic form diffusion differs typical apathetic commitment avoiding diffusion archer waterman 1990 considering views historical context noted derive western viewpoint western eurocentric bias seen special issue evident point world societies considered third world traditional values predominate reflecting pre modern early modern cultures co teŽ terminology societies foreclosure common adaptive cultural prototype cultural differences identity formation remain largely unexplored social psychologists begun describe cultural differences view self e g markus kitayama 1991 research individuals exposed two different cultural frameworks lafromboise et al 1993 phinney alipuria 1996 phinney devichnavarro press beginning show complexity process identity formation individuals families non western countries migrate western countries adolescents confronted cultural differences conception identity process expected form identity migrations experiments nature provide opportunity identity researchers explore identity formation conditions dramatic change gain insight role historical cultural factors process additional historical change increasing diversity process identity formation evident contemporary society diversity raises questions traditional models change number writers proposed developmental sequence identity development diffusion advanced achievement advanced status waterman 1982 suggested model possible status transitions based model kroger haslett 1991 inferred general pattern transition foreclosure moratorium achievement co te e g stephen et al 1992 point clear identity achievement necessarily final individuals reveal moratorium achievement moratorium achievement mama cycles evidence emerging changes considered regressive terms standard pathway e g kroger 1996 494 l goossens j phinney diversity identity pathways mirrored changes traditional normative sequence transitions adolescence adulthood e g completing formal education entering work force marrying chisholm hurrelmann 1995 noted increased diversity patterning youth transitions increasing numbers young people diverge traditional sequence proceed adulthood variety ways authors term pluralization transition patterns phenomenon term equally applicable transitions identity formation short individuals develop interpersonal community contexts historical cultural contexts likely harder psychologists study important identity researchers aware constraints opportunities adolescents face change time place empirical findings validated era culture apply need continually re examined societies change individuals exposed new cultural frameworks implications research paramount task suggested special issue development better means conceptualizing context examining ways individuals interact shape shaped contexts clear best approach tasks involves longitudinal research trace identity formation prospectively considering range contextual variables prospective longitudinal studies qualitative research retrospective study kroger green survey studies large random samples successive cohorts suggested co te valuable pose substantial methodological problems case patterns change need linked internal external factors enhance restrict development examine historical changes future longitudinal studies compared earlier longitudinal work see waterman 1982 review recent efforts goossens 1995 longitudinal studies relatively scarce identity research available data base limits kinds comparisons made experiences researchers conducted longitudinal studies areas development e g funder et al 1993 help inform identity research longitudinal research feasible researchers alternative approaches explored effort understand contextual influences studies samples point time provide important information relationship identity formation range contextual factors widely studied important work grotevant cooper 1985 investigations family factors identity development impact peer relationships identity largely neglected little research role school community structure kinds role models activities available adolescents economic institutional factors unemployment job training programs educational opportunities doubt major factors identity development contexts beginning explored adolescent development crockett crouter 1995 insights work fruitfully applied identity ethnic factors identity development western countries beginning explored e g streitmatter 1988 little 495 commentary cross cultural exploration identity issues adolescents widely different cultures areas researchers need define measure clearly contextual variables interest consider intra individual variables self efficacy personal strength aspects identity capital interact events situations environment short researchers interested identity wide array important questions addressed hoped special issue stimulate interest research important topic references archer l waterman 1990 varieties identity diffusions foreclosures exploration subcategories identity statuses journal adolescent research 5 96 111 bronfenbrenner u 1979 ecology human development cambridge harvard university press chisholm l hurrelmann k 1995 adolescence modern europe pluralized transition patterns implications personal social risks journal adolescence 18 129 158 cole m 1995 supra individual envelope development activity practice situation context cultural practices contexts development goodnow j j miller p j kessel f eds pp 105 118 san francisco jossey bass crockett l crouter eds 1995 pathways adolescence individual development relation social contexts mahwah nj erlbaum elder g modell j parke r 1993 children time place developmental historical insights new york cambridge university press erikson e 1968 identity youth crisis new york norton funder d parke r tomlinson keasey c widaman k 1993 studying lives time personality development washington dc american psychological association goossens l 1995 identity status development students perception university environment cohort sequential study self european north american culture development processes oosterwegel wicklund r eds pp 19 32 dordrecht kluwer grotevant h 1987 process model identity formation journal adolescent research 2 203 222 grotevant h cooper c 1985 patterns interaction family relationships development identity exploration adolescence child development 56 415 428 kraus w mitzscherlich b 1995 identitaštsdiffusion als kulturelle anpassungsleistung erste empirische ergebinsse zur verašnderungen der identitaštsentwicklung identity diffusion cultural adaptation empirical results changes identity development psychologie im erziehung und unterricht 42 65 72 kroger j haslett j 1991 comparison ego identity status transition pathways change rates five identity domains international journal aging human development 32 303 330 kroger j 1996 identity regression development paper presented meeting society research adolescence boston lafromboise t coleman h gerton j 1993 psychological impact biculturalism evidence theory psychological bulletin 114 395 412 marcia j 1966 development validation ego identity status journal personality social psychology 3 551 558 marcia j 1980 identity adolescence handbook adolescent psychology adelson j ed pp 159 187 new york wiley marcia j 1989 identity diffusion differentiated psychological development perspectives life span lucz m nettelbeck t eds pp 289 295 amsterdam north holland markstrom adams c 1992 consideration intervening factors adolescent identity 496 l goossens j phinney formation adolescent identity formation adams g gullotta t montemayor r eds pp 173 192 thousand oaks ca sage markus h kitayama 1991 culture self implications cognition emotion motivation psychological review 98 224 253 phinney j alipuria l 1996 interface culture multiethnic multiracial high school college students journal social psychology 136 139 158 phinney j devich navarro m press variations bicultural identification african american mexican american adolescents journal research adolescence shweder r sullivan m 1993 cultural psychology needs annual review psychology 44 497 523 steinberg l 1995 commentary developmental pathways social contexts adolescence pathways adolescence individual development relation social contexts crockett l crouter eds pp 245 253 mahwah nj erlbaum streitmatter j 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