Summary / Abstract

Title: Ethnic identity in aboriginal Sami adolescents: the impact of the family and the ethnic communitycontext

Synopsis: The influence of parentage and ethnic community context on ethnic self-identification and ethnicattitudes and behaviour were examined in 245 indigenous Sami adolescents in northern Norway. Ethnic identity was strongly relatedto both parentage and type of ethnic community. Monoethnic adolescents at the coast (with great integration and assimilation)identified themselves mostly as bicultural or Norwegian, but in the highland (with strong ethnic support), they identified stronglyas Samis. Adolescents with mixed parentage identified strongly as Norwegian at the coast but mostly as bicultural in the highland.Ethnic behaviour and attitudes were significantly associated with both family and regional context; ethnic self-identification wasrelated to other components of ethnic identity. Sami, adolescents, ethnic identity, context, ethnic self identification, highland, Norwegian, ethnic attitudes, biculturalism, parentage, coast, ethnic behaviour, ethnic community, ethnic group, Norway, aboriginal Sami adolescents, Sami Language, Indigenous Sami Adolescents, assimilation, regional context, Northern Norway, ethnic awareness, ethnic group membership, traditional clothes, integration, coastal area, mother tongue, geographical context, Sami language competence, institutional completeness,

Related links for: Ethnic identity in aboriginal Sami adolescents: the impact of the family and the ethnic communitycontext

Additional keywords for: Ethnic identity in aboriginal Sami adolescents: the impact of the family and the ethnic communitycontext

journal adolescence 1996 19 453 463 ethnic identity aboriginal sami adolescents impact family ethnic community context siv kvernmo sonja heyerdahl influence parentage ethnic community context ethnic self identification ethnic attitudes behaviour examined 245 indigenous sami adolescents northern norway ethnic identity strongly related parentage type ethnic community monoethnic adolescents coast great integration assimilation identified bicultural norwegian highland strong ethnic support identified strongly samis adolescents mixed parentage identified strongly norwegian coast bicultural highland ethnic behaviour attitudes significantly associated family regional context ethnic self identification related components ethnic identity 1996 association professionals services adolescents introduction important aspect belonging aboriginal group sense attachment group individual members ethnic identity developed experiences ethnic group membership integration group specific values traditions self meaning terms interethnic contact christian et al 1976 harris 1980 development ethnic identity thought interact contextual factors phinney rosenthal 1992 family ethnic community provide important cultural contexts ethnic identity current study explored contextual factors ethnic identity aboriginal group samis norway family handling ethnic topics ethnic attitudes important establishing ethnic identity children structural aspect family context interethnic marriages interethnic marriages assumed weaken ethnic ties little research exists topic evidence suggests children bicultural families retain positive identification ethnic origins aubert 1978 salgado de snyder et al 1982 alba chamlin 1983 stephan stephan 1989 hall 1992 possible pull culture multiethnic adolescents feel strongly attached parental ethnic group monoethnic peers stephan stephan 1989 1991 kich 1992 parents primary socializers children influence adolescents susceptible external factors younger children features ethnic community larger society considerable importance ethnic identity reinforcing weakening cultural context provided reprint request correspondence addressed dr kvernmo department child adolescent psychiatry faculty medicine university tromsoe aasgaardv 9b 9016 tromsoe norway 0140 1971 96 05045311 18 00 0 1996 association professionals services adolescents 454 kvernmo heyerdahl family ethnic groups vary extent institutional completeness i e organised support e g religion schools media available group rosenthal hrynevich 1985 studies demonstrated influence group institutional completeness status individuals ethnic identity driedger 1976 mcguire padawer singer 1976 mcguire et al 1978 rosenthal hrynevich 1985 rosenthal hrynevich 1985 study greek italian immigrants australia found positive association cohesiveness community positive valuing ethnic origin driedger 1976 found groups high status completeness stronger ethnic identity compared groups low status low moderate levels institutional completeness cohesive structured ethnic communities greater possibility create positive role models members important positive evaluation ethnic group membership ethnic behaviour density group members ethnic community considered important garcia lega 1979 research results concerning effects density ethnic identity mixed caucasian minorities low ethnic density related loss ethnic identity alba chamlin 1983 mexican americans related retention ethnic ties padilla 1980 terms group distinctiveness caucasian minority similarity larger society blend dominant group visible minorities like mexican americans possible ethnic activities practices important elements tapping individual commitment attachment ethnic group rosenthal feldman 1992 ethnic attitudes considered central invisible core elements culture ethnic behaviours peripheral visible elements readily changed bond yang 1982 triandis et al 1986 rosenthal feldman 1992 ethnic language important aspect ethnic identity indigenous people ethnic language competence passport arenas confirming ethnic identity earlier studies cultural contexts shown language differences create basis social categorization language proficiency strongly related ethnic identity taylor et al 1972 taylor et al 1973 christian et al 1976 giles et al 1976 sotomajor 1977 aubert 1978 rosenthal hrynevich 1985 heller 1987 studies confirm influence giles et al 1979 topic ethnic identity aboriginal adolescents studied systematically little known impact ethnic community adolescents sense attachment indigenous group present study investigated ethnic selfidentification sami adolescents ethnic communities differed structure cohesiveness density study performed finnmark northernmost county norway county covers area 48 650 square kilometers located 70 degrees latitude comparable northern alaska area sparcely populated coastal highland regions populated samis norwegians samis native people northern scandinavia inhabited area known sapmi samiland 2000 years sapmi norway sweden finland kola peninsula russia originally samis hunters fishermen nowadays samis make living nomadic reindeer herding 10 agriculture fishing occupations samis native language traditional costumes folk music originally religion samis distinguishing physical characteristics like low body height epicanthus prominent cheekbones typical appearance pronounced 455 ethnic identity aboriginal sami adolescents 60 000 samis roughly 40 000 live norway mainly two northernmost counties finnmark troms historically initial contact samis scandinavian people based primarily trade plunder tax collection scandinavians heavy colonization samiland place nineteenth century norway started overt policy eradicate sami language culture sami language virtually forbidden school economic sanctions imposed samis refused pass norwegian lifestyle culture prejudice discrimination samis widespread society magga 1994 second world war long standing history assimilative policy national authorities replaced integration policy sami equal members state separate group individual members rights equal norwegians period ethnic revival cultural mobilization place providing increased sense ethnic group membership ingroup solidarity stordahl 1994 sami act 1987 aims ensure favourable conditions enable sami people norway maintain develop language culture social structures provided legislative base sami parliament opened 1989 sami institutions education health services research media art funded located highland finnmark major sami area norway cultural revival samis resulted increasing ethnic language traditional ethnic clothes cultural paraphernalia expressing ethnic group membership traditional clothes related attitudes ethnic symbols exposure ethnic culture acculturative process different two geographical areas coast highland early assimilative process greatest impact coastal communities samis minority aubert 1970 today 10 adult population coast children adolescents sami speakers due inter ethnic marriages norwegian settlements ethnic density areas relatively low structural practical support sami group lacking fragmented sporadic positive revival sami culture evident area assimilative pressure samis area tried pass norwegian culture hiding cultural background magga 1994 highland community ethnic density high 80 90 population samis influence national assimilative policy weaker norwegian settlements rare inter ethnic marriages second world war founding sami institutions theatre college research institutions sami parliament health services broadcasting mainly staffed highly educated samis provided successful indigenous role models sami language survived ban sami language enforced strictly coastal area highland 90 adult population sami speakers bilinguals sami norwegian official languages public areas schools health care system radio church ethnic revitalization process area initiated highly educated samis aim study examine family contextual variables influence ethnic self identification ethnic attitudes practices specifically wanted examine community context parentage monoethnic vs mixed related ethnic identity four questions addressed extent sami 456 kvernmo heyerdahl adolescents self identify norwegian sami bicultural relationships type ethnic community type parentage monoethnic mixed ethnic self identification geographical context parentage relate ethnic behaviour usage language traditional clothes ethnic attitudes ethnic awareness family evaluation ethnic group membership ethnic self identification related aspects ethnic identity behaviour attitudes awareness evaluation ascribed identity friends method participants sample consisted 245 sami students 130 girls 115 boys attending 23 junior high schools eight municipalities finnmark norway schools selected represent county geographically culturally subjects 12 17 years age mean age 14 4 adolescents study considered sami parents ethnicity parents grandparents mother tongue reported sami procedure students participated voluntary basis parental consent required study self report survey carried schools teachers students school completed questionnaires anonymously time questionnaire available sami norwegian measures self report questionnaire items socio demographic background ethnicity ethnic items grouped two categories 1 ethnic group membership ethnic self identification 2 ethnic behaviour attitudes region communities classified coastal highland area 154 subjects lived highland 91 coastal area ethnic parentage stigmatization assimilation samis describe norwegian self reported ethnicity accurate measure ethnic group membership samis reporting sami language competence considered stigmatizing reporting sami ethnicity spite large number grandparents speaking sami parents coast learn sami home cases grandparents language reported norwegian missing reported ethnicity parents determine parentage sami language competence reported sets grandparents sami ethnicity reported parents parentage classified monoethnic grandparents sami language competence parents sami ethnicity reported side parentage classified mixed 91 adolescents coast 61 67 mixed 30 33 monoethnic highland total 154 457 ethnic identity aboriginal sami adolescents adolescents 60 39 mixed 94 61 monoethnic difference significant c 2 18 p 0 001 ethnic self identification ethnic identity defined adolescents selfidentification multiple choice question i perceive self alternatives provided norwegian sami finnish please specify participants choose alternatives adolescents answering sami categorized sami identity subjects selecting sami alternatives classified bicultural identity chose norwegian categorized norwegian identity participants chose finnish excluded ethnic behaviours attitudes items assessing ethnic behaviour attitudes cultural awareness ethnic evaluation mother tongue scored three point ordinal scale 0 true 1 true 2 true true ethnic behaviour assessed two items item concerned languages learned home reporting sami learned home classified sami mother tongue scored sami mother tongue item concerned traditional clothes special events ethnic attitudes assessed two questions concerning attitude existence sami language attitude usage traditional sami clothes samis cultural awareness family assessed item talk cultural background home evaluation ethnic group membership assessed asking adolescents evaluate ethnic group membership item i am satisfied cultural background results ethnic labelling adolescents equally distributed three categories identity sami 32 bicultural 32 norwegian 36 ethnic self identification strongly related geographical region c 2 76 p 0 001 parentage c 2 77 p 0 001 table 1 third adolescents mixed heritage defined bicultural half monoethnic respondents identified accordance parents ethnicity sami coast adolescents monoethnic parentage identified bicultural norwegian highland identified sami coastal area adolescents mixed heritage labelled strongly norwegian highland mixed adolescents frequently identified bicultural bicultural group approximately size 30 regional family context geographical context parental context considered shifts appeared table 1 table 2 shows items representing different components ethnic identity sake brevity cell shows single combined percentage representing adolescents rated items positively statistical significance calculated three point 458 kvernmo heyerdahl scale true true true true reflects variations categories obvious summary percentage shown ethnic behaviour assessed sami language mother tongue ethnic clothes strongly related regional context c 2 70 p 0 001 language c 2 27 p 0 001 ethnic clothes family context c 2 77 p 0 001 language c 2 27 p 0 001 ethnic clothes effects parentage region additive sami language mother tongue ethnic attitudes positive groups associated parentage c 2 29 p 0 001 attitude sami language c 2 14 p 0 001 attitudes ethnic clothes region c 2 42 p 0 001 attitudes sami language c 2 28 p 0 001 attitudes ethnic clothes cultural awareness family associated parentage region subgroup mixed adolescents coast lower cultural awareness table 1 percentage ethnic self identification sami adolescents different family contexts regional contexts ethnic self identification parentage region monoethnic mixed coast highland coast highland total n 30 n 94 n 61 n 60 n 245 sami 13 68 0 15 32 bicultural 47 25 16 50 32 norwegian 40 7 84 35 36 total 100 100 100 100 100 table 2 percent positive responses regarding cultural practice ethnic attitudes ethnic awareness evaluation ethnic group membership region parentage parentage region differences total groups monoethnic mixed region parentage coast highland coast highland total n 30 n 94 n 61 n 60 n 245 ethnic behaviour language 57 91 12 43 55 traditional clothes 40 88 21 69 61 ethnic attitudes sami language 83 98 72 92 88 traditional clothes 87 95 75 84 86 ethnic awareness 63 55 36 58 52 n evaluation ethnic group membership 93 90 90 92 91 n differences region p 0 05 p 0 001 p 0 001 differences parentage p 0 05 p 0 01 p 0 001 459 ethnic identity aboriginal sami adolescents family monoethnic adolescents region c 2 9 p 0 01 mixed adolescents highland c 2 8 p 0 05 experienced ethnic awareness peers coast evaluation ethnic group membership high groups relationship ethnic self identification aspects ethnic identity studied table 3 differences three self labelled identity groups pronounced ethnic behaviour concerning ethnic attitudes cultural awareness differences due group norwegian identity scoring lower results attitude awareness evaluation ethnic group membership different geographical family contexts behaviour geographical context great importance wearing traditional clothes reported 38 bicultural adolescents coast 77 highland 22 adolescents norwegian identity coast 43 highland highland 95 adolescents identified monoethnic spoke sami compared 75 coast aspect ethnic identity context relationship individual self perception identity social surroundings concerning relationship adolescents self labelled identity identity ascribed friends reported adolescents agreement high 71 agreement bicultural group 25 adolescents bicultural identity thought friends perceived bicultural regional differences occurred bicultural group 17 coast 30 highland respectively ascribed self labelled ethnicity discussion study revealed manifestation ethnic self identification indigenous sami adolescents closely related contextual factors sami adolescents identified ethnic group monocultural bicultural samis ethnic self identification varied family ethnic community context surprisingly table 3 percent positive responses regarding cultural practices ethnic attitudes ethnic awareness evaluation ethnic group membership ethnic self identification ethnic self identification sami bicultural norwegian n 76 n 77 n 89 ethnic behaviour sami language 95 55 22 traditional clothes 96 65 28 ethnic attitudes sami language 99 99 70 traditional clothes 97 92 71 ethnic awareness 62 61 36 evaluation ethnic group membership 93 91 89 460 kvernmo heyerdahl ethnic self identification strongly related ethnicity parents children monoethnic parentage make first identifications parents representing ethnic group adolescents mixed heritage face challenge dealing two cultures results indicate strong ethnic socialization likely monoethnic families half adolescents mixed families identified ethnic group origin results findings reported salgado de snyder et al 1982 alba chamlin 1983 position mixed multiethnic heritage make adolescents flexible ethnocentric capable ethnic androgyny defined hall 1992 possibility identifying strongly heritage monoethnic adolescents living ethnically diverse societies influences create bicultural competence bicultural identity lafromboise et al 1993 findings support evidence type ethnic community surrounding family strengthens weakens influence parents ethnic self labelling flexible varies context shown phinney alipuria 1996 monoethnic adolescents highland area strengthened monoethnic identity sami coastal context strengthened norwegian identity multiethnic peers greatest variation monoethnic adolescents ethnic labelling occured coastal area bicultural identity predominant monoethnic mixed adolescents ethnic labels appropriate ethnic community pattern ethnic labelling due greater acceptance highland mixed parentage greater demand sami spite higher number mixed people coast acceptance multiethnicity significantly lower coast adolescents seen bicultural ethnic labelling monoethnic mixed sami adolescents showed flexibility variation context results indicate indigenous sami adolescents develop bicultural competence live multicultural communities culturally homogeneous ones sami adolescents two different ethnic contexts experience bicultural different ways pressure ethnic highland vs dominant coast describe cultural challenges adolescents handle adolescents embedded dominant norwegian culture coast lose cultural identity limited support ethnic group dominant identification indicate assimilation cultural identity lost effect context self labelling consistent findings reported studies hall 1992 phinney alipuria 1996 differences meaning understanding sami identity adolescents two contexts taken account highland traditional life semi nomadic reindeer herders people minds represents real sami culture referred standard bearer entire ethnic group anderson 1981 contrast samis coast recognize sami culture cite principal reason regard samis see samis reindeer herders alternative identify norwegian culture factor awareness boundaries ethnic group outgroup important individuals conscious sense ethnic 461 ethnic identity aboriginal sami adolescents identity giles johnson 1981 rosenthal hrynevich 1985 coastal communities boundaries permeable differences sami norwegians clear recognizable ethnic paraphernalia group boundaries strong sami identity diffuse eroded ethnic behaviours significantly frequent coast highland fact suggest denial behaviours highlight ethnic group membership wish pass dominant culture evidence supports view ethnic behaviours visible peripheral elements culture resistant change bond yang 1982 triandis et al 1986 rosenthal feldman 1990 1992 effect regional context strengthened family context adolescents mother tongue strongly related parentage region expected important finding sami learned home 43 adolescents mixed parentage highland 57 monoethnic parentage highland area finding shows impact strong community support maintain sami language conscious attitudes parents bilingualism important competence sami adolescents allows participate interact sami society internal invisible aspects identity ethnic attitudes found studies resistant cultural change external ones ethnic behaviour found attitudes sami language ethnic paraphernalia usage traditional costumes positive positive prevalent highlands coast research provides clear evidence ethnic behaviours vulnerable change attitudes ethnic heterogenous contexts reinforce vulnerability focusing ethnic topics family provide awareness ethnicity adolescents study mixed families coastal area lowest ethnic awareness due limited number ethnically stimulating supportive features community suggestion adolescents wish pass norwegian group discussing ethnic topics family make process difficult complex fact mixed families highlands talked cultural background show importance ethnic topics context different components discussed explored relation ethnic selfidentification surprisingly adolescents identified norwegian found lowest components evaluation three groups evaluated ethnic group membership positive terms possibly identified norwegian feel like members sami group saw dominant group satisfied membership study focused ethnic identity indigenous sami adolescents topic explored previously research ethnic identity aboriginal adolescents lacking possible compare findings groups positions study revealed ethnic identity components related ethnic identity sami adolescents associated contextual factors minority adolescents living quite different contexts important finding contexts supportive indigenous culture contribute encourage important attachment ethnic group monoethnic mixed adolescents investigations needed explore growing establishment sami institutions coastal area increase number sami adolescents identify 462 kvernmo heyerdahl sami group indigenous adolescents inuits maoris australian aborigenes native americans samis common unique cultural experiences affect ethnic group attachment ethnic identity interesting question importance ethnic context relevant ethnic identity groups sami adolescents acknowledgements research supported ministry social welfare health national program health equality solveig johan p sommers foundation promotion clinical psychiatric research josef haldis andresens legacy references alba r chamlin m d 1983 preliminary examination ethnic 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