Summary / Abstract

Title: Culture and problem behaviors among inner-city African–American youth: further explorations

Synopsis: The present study examined connections between culture and problem behaviors among 119 inner-cityAfrican–American fifth and sixth graders. The relevant orientations of the Afrocultural, Anglocultural and marginalizedminority realms of the African–American experience were considered in terms of mean endorsement, interrelationships, andrelationships with aggressive and delinquent behaviors. Results indicated that youth endorsed the Afrocultural orientation ofspirituality and the Anglocultural orientation of effort optimism most highly. Afrocultural orientations were positively associatedwith effort optimism, while the other Anglocultural orientations correlated positively with marginalized minority orientations. TheAnglocultural orientation of person/object relations and the marginalized orientations of school rejection, and gang-relatedactivity predicted problem behaviors. The Afrocultural orientations did not emerge as significant negative predictors of suchbehaviors. Findings are discussed primarily in terms of directions for future research. orientations, problem behaviors, African American, culture, delinquent behaviors, Anglocultural orientations, youth, marginalized minority, Jagers, marginalized minority realms, school rejection, gang, object relations, spirituality, endorsement, effort optimism, gang related activity, adolescence, African american experience, interrelationships, connections, communalism, significant negative predictors, relevant orientations, questionnaire, street economy, acquisitive individualism, gang involvement, interpersonal competition, component orientations,

Related links for: Culture and problem behaviors among inner-city African–American youth: further explorations

Additional keywords for: Culture and problem behaviors among inner-city African–American youth: further explorations

journal adolescence 1996 19 371 381 culture problem behaviors inner city african american youth explorations robert j jagers present study examined connections culture problem behaviors 119 inner city african american fifth sixth graders relevant orientations afrocultural anglocultural marginalized minority realms african american experience considered terms mean endorsement interrelationships relationships aggressive delinquent behaviors results indicated youth endorsed afrocultural orientation spirituality anglocultural orientation effort optimism highly afrocultural orientations positively associated effort optimism anglocultural orientations correlated positively marginalized minority orientations anglocultural orientation person object relations marginalized orientations school rejection gang related activity predicted problem behaviors afrocultural orientations emerge significant negative predictors behaviors findings discussed primarily terms directions future research 1996 association professionals services adolescents introduction array putative explanations disproportionate representation innercity african american youth perpetrators victims serious violent crimes hammond yung 1993 study concerned issues culture implications problem behaviors aggression delinquency youth growing interest connection culture psychological functioning e g betancourt lopez 1993 guerra jagers review cultural factors featured prominently proposed correlates correctives aggression delinquency population e g ogbu 1985 oliver 1989 hawkins 1993 watts 1993 instance literature assumes participation deviant street culture spawns problem outcomes poor urban african american youth naison 1992 kennedy baron 1993 interventions outcomes attempt implicity explicitly cultivate youth eurocentric africentric values beliefs behaviors despite efforts remains need adequately describe complex cultural reality extant african americans document relevance psychological phenomena like problem behaviors boykin ellison 1995 mind jagers mock 1993 attempted profile cultural predilections low income african american sixth graders explore linkages reprint requests correspondence addressed r j jagers department psychology m c 285 1009 behavioral sciences building box 4348 chicago illinois 60680 u 0140 1971 96 04037111 18 00 0 1996 association professionals services adolescents 372 r j jagers social attitudes behaviors employed triple quandary framework boykin 1983 characterizes african american experience comprised three social realms afrocultural realm representing african cultural legacy anglocultural realm indicating assimilation mainstream anglo american cultural imperatives minority realm encompassing reactions european american domination initial investigation revealed afrocultural orientations spirituality affect communalism rated highly anglocultural marginalized minority realms greater endorsement afrocultural realm relative two realms associated aggressive delinquent behaviors present study extended jagers mock considering component orientations afrocultural anglocultural marginalized minority realms previous work examined relevant orientations afrocultural realm treating anglocultural marginalized minority realms composite constructs study examined applicable component orientations three realms terms level endorsement interrelationships associations problem behaviors aggression delinquency remainder introduction notion culture discussed realms component orientations african american experience described psychosocial implications considered broadest sense culture refers life e g rohner 1984 myers 1987 cultivated particular group people boykin 1983 conceptual distinctions drawn levels aspects culture e g triandis 1972 myers 1987 boykin 1993 notion fundamental culture boykin 1993 central research refers world views values corresponding behavioral inclinations fundamental culture provides shared meaning system members interpret reality construct lives geertz 1973 rohner 1984 nobles 1991 jagers mock 1993 mentioned triple quandary framework asserts varying degrees african americans exposed negotiate afrocultural anglocultural minority social realms realms component orientations relevant problem behaviors described afrocultural realm rooted traditional african culture represents cultural integrity people african descent boykin 1983 nobles 1991 spirituality affect communalism orientations pertinent present interest problem behaviors spirituality connotes appreciation shared vital essence things mbiti 1970 jagers et al review attentiveness affective tone states detecting human variation spiritual expression genuine self expression sensitivity expressions signifies reaffirms interconnectedness participating parties affective competence provides foundation communal relations nsamenang 1992 communalism emphasizes social connectedness responsibility encourages promotive interdependence ingroup members boykin et al press jagers mock 1995 anglocultural realm refers world views sensibilities behavioral tendencies middle class european americans cultural agenda evolved calvinist protestant traditions 18th century england spence 1985 bellah et al 1985 bennett 1991 posited orientations material effort optimism interpersonal competition person object relations germane problem behaviors inner city african american youth orientations portray self 373 culture problem behaviors self contained self interested agents compete maximize material attainments levels patterns consumption employed means conveying evaluating social status objectified justify manipulation pursuit goods services dubois 1972 boykin 1983 stewart bennett 1991 minority realm encompasses attitudes adaptive strategies developed cope european american domination berry 1980 suggests possible alternative strategies minorities assimilation separation pluralism marginalization marginalization clearly implicated problem behavior low income inner city african american children e g ogbu 1985 oliver 1989 taylor 1991 naison 1992 marginalization implies absence culturally defined norms practices overcoming truncated economic political social opportunities lafromboise et al 1993 taylor 1991 proposed physical environment experienced poor inner city residents contributes feelings social alienation eventual disengagement normative patterns broader society embracing afrocultural anglocultural orientations community residents thought develop practical aberrant strategies acquiring desired goods services e g ogbu 1985 taylor 1991 kennedy baron 1993 children youth marginalized orientations school rejection involvement gang related behaviors participation street economy e g ogbu 1985 taylor 1991 naison 1992 triple quandary postulates orientations dealt simultaneously relationships afrocultural anglocultural orientations offer insight issues african american biculturality presently data indicating fashion orientations related connections cultural orientations minority coping strategies remain articulated empirically true anglocultural marginalized minority orientations believe marginalization represent distinct cultural thrust e g taylor 1991 view oppositional anglocultural imperatives e g fordham ogbu 1986 offered marginalized attitudes behaviors reflects context specific adaption anglocultural orientations currie 1991 west 1994 terms problem behaviors afrocultural orientations spirituality affect communalism form afrocultural social ethos jagers et al review associated ethical maturity african societies e g davidson 1969 mbiti 1970 menkiti 1984 nsamenang 1991 growing cadre scholars believe revitalization orientations facilitate desirable social outcomes extant african americans e g myers 1987 oliver 1989 west 1994 empirical literature position quite thin anglocultural orientations considered suggest acquisitive individualism concerns premium placed acquisitive individualism traced back de tocquivelle evident contemporary critiques american culture bellah et al 1985 self indulgence need immediate gratification unscrupulous competition salient negative consequences orientations e g lasch 1979 currie 1991 benson moore 1992 lore schultz 1993 reasonable assume orientations contribution problem behaviors inner city youth 374 r j jagers academic failure involvement deviant peer groups linked delinquent behavior patterson et al 1989 zigler et al 1992 gang affiliation necessarily imply delinquency drug related activities made gang members violent nonaffiliated peers curry spergel 1992 similarly street economy legitimate aspects drug activity gambling fraud theft extortion prominent enterprise e g oliver 1989 agnew 1990 taylor 1991 naison 1992 broader conceptions african american experience offered e g boykin 1983 jones 1991 need empirical data documenting mean endorsement interrelationships components orientations additionally culture implied literature problem behaviors inner city youth imperative explore relevance cultural patterning aggressive delinquent behaviors population method participants hundred nineteen fifth n 48 sixth grade n 71 african american youth investigation mean age sample 11 3 years d 1 4 years children five classrooms two elementary schools sampled schools located poor inner city communities large midwestern city approximately 92 families children schools received form public assistance 55 boys 64 girls sample measures cultural questionnaire children cqc jagers mock 1993 comprised three questionnaires designed assess dimensions afrocultural anglocultural marginalized minority realms questionnaire features series vignettes portray thoughts feelings behaviors single actor afrocultural questionnaire assesses endorsement afrocultural dimension 1 spirituality highlights shared vital essence entities 2 affect concerns emphasis emotional state self 3 communalism refers premium social bonds responsibilities three vignettes generated dimensions anglocultural questionnaire assesses endorsement dimensions associated anglocultural motif acquisitive individualism four vignettes produced questionnaire 1 material suggests link material acquisition self worth 2 effort optimism connotes value hard work sacrifice 3 interpersonal competition 4 person object relations highlights functional utility social marginalized minority questionnaire assesses responses conditions social disenfranchisement three vignettes generated addressed dimensions 1 rejection anglo american schooling experience 2 gang membership related activities 3 participation alternative illicit economic activities gender actor vignettes varied order presentation randomized reduce response communalism vignette offered 375 culture problem behaviors roy feels important things family friends community feels best doing things helping roy tries help believes important get people roy helps help identical response format questionnaire four questions followed vignette respondents asked degree actor 1 like family members 2 like friends 3 like 4 like actor question utilized four point rating scale present study selfidentification preference like questions utilized anchors questions ranged 1 like 4 like 1 strongly dislike 4 strongly like mean two items computed form orientation score pilot work cognitive testing 3rd 5th 8th grade students insured comprehensibility vignettes rating system two subscales child behavior checklist youth self report ysr achenbach edelbrock 1987 administered measure aggressive delinquent behaviors subscales developed primarily clinical screening tool childhood psychopathology delinquency subscale total 13 items employs three point scale format labels true true true true corresponding scores 0 1 2 respectively i hang kids get trouble items subscale score greater 6 falls psychopathological range aggression subscale total 23 items format delinquency subscale i act stopping think sample item subscale score greater 17 index falls psychopathological range procedures class administration questionnaire packets accomplished two teams african american undergraduate research assistants team trained supervised african american graduate student brief overview project research assistants led class reading designated questionnaire questionnaires color coded aid process students instructed circle answer item read aloud research assistants circulated classroom answering questions spotchecking students insure directions understood followed end session participants debriefed engaged recreational activity results mean endorsement mean scores cultural orientations presented table 1 2 school 2 gender manova repeated measures conducted explore possible differences endorsement component orientations school gender effects found differences obtained endorsement orientations f 9 1053 147 33 p 0 0001 noteworthy spirituality effort optimism endorsed significantly higher orientations afrocultural orientations endorsed highly three anglocultural 376 r j jagers marginalized orientations anglocultural orientations rated highly marginalized orientations means aggression delinquency shown 13 9 3 1 respectively separate 2 school 2 gender anovas conducted behavior significant finding main effect gender delinquency subscale f 1 118 20 19 p 0 0001 boys reported significantly delinquent behavior girls relationships cultural orientations table 2 displays correlation coefficients generated explore interrelationships orientations prevailing trend orientations realm positively correlated anglocultural orientation effort optimism negatively correlated component orientations higher youth rated hard work sacrifice inclined endorse material gain expense table 1 mean data cultural domains dimensions m d afrocultural spirituality 3 30 0 57 communalism 3 05 0 42 affect 2 97 0 51 anglocultural material 2 30 0 87 effort optimism 3 45 0 70 interpersonal competition 1 89 0 75 person object relations 1 70 0 69 marginalized minority school rejection 1 46 0 72 gang involvement 1 28 0 63 street economy 1 51 0 75 table 2 correlations cultural orientations 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 spirituality 1 communalism 2 0 54 affect 3 0 58 0 54 material 4 0 05 0 04 0 05 effort optimism 5 0 32 0 25 0 32 0 05 interpersonal 0 15 0 09 0 17 0 43 0 30 competition 6 person object relations 7 0 10 0 19 0 12 0 34 0 22 0 38 school rejection 8 0 08 0 06 0 17 0 36 0 18 0 31 0 14 gang involvement 9 0 13 0 26 0 20 0 13 0 25 0 25 0 13 0 29 street economy 10 0 12 0 05 0 01 0 34 0 31 0 37 0 40 0 27 0 28 p0 05 p0 01 377 culture problem behaviors regard afrocultural anglocultural orientations effort optimism found positively associated three afrocultural orientations youth endorsed cosmic social interdependence endorsed working hard reach objectives communalism found negatively correlated person object relations social connectedness inconsistent utilitarian social relations turning attention marginalized orientations revealed greater endorsement afrocultural orientations affect communalism corresponded lower endorsement gang related activity effort optimism negatively correlated marginalized minority orientations youth placed higher premium hard work oriented marginalized orientations hand greater endorsement material interpersonal competitiveness person object relation consistent higher levels school rejection gang related street economy activities table 3 standard regression cultural orientations delinquency r b semi partial sr2 r unique spirituality 0 13 0 14 0 12 communalism 0 05 0 14 0 11 affect 0 04 0 14 0 10 material 0 31 0 13 0 12 effort optimism 0 03 0 09 0 08 interpersonal 0 20 0 07 0 01 competition person object relations 0 31 0 28 0 24 0 06 school rejection 0 21 0 05 0 05 gang involvement 0 24 0 24 0 22 0 05 street economy 0 15 0 03 0 03 p 0 05 p 0 01 r 0 46 r 2 0 21 adjusted r 2 0 14 table 4 standard regression cultural orientations delinquency r b semi partial sr2 r unique spirituality 0 12 0 04 0 03 communalism 0 11 0 08 0 06 affect 0 19 0 09 0 08 material 0 25 0 07 0 06 effort optimism 0 20 0 03 0 2 interpersonal 0 16 0 13 0 10 competition person object relations 0 33 0 29 0 26 0 07 school rejection 0 36 0 24 0 21 0 04 gang involvement 0 30 0 23 0 20 0 04 street economy 0 23 0 04 0 03 p 0 05 p 0 01 r 0 49 r 2 0 24 adjusted r 2 0 16 b standard regression coefficient 378 r j jagers relationships cultural orientations problem behaviors standard regression procedures conducted explore possible associations cultural orientations aggressive delinquent behaviors cultural orientation regressed aggression delinquency scores instances orientations entered simultaneously equation table 3 displays zero order correlations standardized regression coefficient semipartial correlations sr r r 2 adjusted r 2 aggression table 4 displays statistics delinquency table 3 shows greater endorsement anglocultural orientations material interpersonal competition person object relations consistent higher levels aggressive behavior marginalized orientations school rejection gang related activity found positively associated aggressive behavior regression model aggressive behavior statistically significant f 10 107 2 83 p 0 001 adjusted r 2 0 14 marginalized orientation gangrelated activity sr 0 24 anglocultural orientation person object relations sr 0 22 emerged significant independent predictors aggressive behavior two orientations accounted 11 variance aggression scores regard delinquent behaviors table 4 reveals negative zero order association afrocultural orientation affect delinquent behaviors anglocultural orientation effort optimism inconsistent behaviors conversely anglocultural orientations marginalized orientations associated positively delinquent behaviors regression model delinquent behavior found significant f 10 107 3 30 p 0 001 adjusted r 2 0 16 marginalized orientations school rejection sr 0 21 gang related activity sr 0 20 anglocultural orientation person object relations sr 0 26 found independent predictors delinquent behaviors combined orientations accounted 15 variance scores discussion study concerned african american culture relevance problem behaviors low income inner city fifth sixth graders levels endorsement interrelationships specific component orientations afrocultural anglocultural marginalized minority realms first considered attention turned relationships orientations self reports aggressive delinquent behavior physical environment indicated social political economic disenfranchisement youth sample resonated positively spirituality affect communalism sense affirmed afrocultural integrity finding consistent jagers mock 1993 youth believed mainstream american notion hard work sacrifice rewarded found youth spiritually socially grounded committed hard work finding reinforced negative association personal striving aspects acquisitive individualism aside tension communal utilitarian relations afrocultural anglocultural orientations orthogonal 379 culture problem behaviors positively endorsed increases school rejection involvements gang street activity corresponded heightened concern material gain youth see participation street life expeditious viable acquire material resources e g currie 1991 benson moore 1992 west 1994 tact lead predatory individualism features increased levels aggression delinquency contributions school rejection gang involvement behaviors anticipated noteworthy objectification emerged underlying cultural orientation behaviors appears youth view competing material gain se critical aggression delinquency surprising afrocultural orientations mitigate behaviors conceptually orientations suggest humanistic view social previous work employed cultural difference scores data indicated greater endorsement orientations relative realms associated aggressive delinquent behaviors jagers mock 1993 additionally recent research revealed afrocultural orientations associated positively prosocial indicators like empathy altruistic view social jagers et al review connection afrocultural orientations problem behaviors remains clearly elucidated study exploratory results viewed caution important note instance afrocultural orientations featured unique people african descent mentioned aspects anglo american culture help limit problem behaviors sampson 1988 subsequent studies benefit multimethod approach sense self reports supplemented observational data peer adults ratings broader range minority coping strategies needs sampled discern connections cultural orientations related concerns like acculturative stress e g berry 1980 anderson 1991 insights needed cultural acquisition processes developmental course afro anglocultural orientations charted segments african american community reasonable assume family factors like demographics attitudes acculturation cultural predilections figure prominently cultural repertoire children youth influences friends important late childhood adolescence insight needed functional significance cultural patterning population 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