Summary / Abstract

Title: Assessing adolescent problems: an overview of the adolescent problems inventory

Synopsis: The Adolescent Problems Inventory (API) and the Problem Inventory for Adolescent Girls (PIAG) arecommonly employed in studies of antisocial and delinquent behaviour. This paper offers a review and critique of these inventories.The development and construction of the inventories are detailed, followed by discussion of their psychometric properties. Theweight of evidence suggests that the inventories are related to behavioural indices associated with antisocial and delinquentbehaviour. More recent studies have considered the factor structure of the API, suggesting several dimensions of socialfunctioning. It is concluded that the API and PIAG are robust instruments that can yield valuable clinical and research data. delinquents, API, adolescent, adolescent problems, problem inventory, PIAG, Hollin, social functioning, response, situations, inventories, adolescent girls, social skills, McFall, Gaffney, Palmer, nondelinquents, social competence, behavioural indices, construction, clinical psychology, Professionals, assessment, correlations, research data, psychometric properties, Assessing Adolescent Problems, internal consistency, juvenile delinquents, open ended format,

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journal adolescence 1996 19 347 354 assessing adolescent problems overview adolescent problems inventory emma j palmer clive r hollin adolescent problems inventory api problem inventory adolescent girls piag commonly employed studies antisocial delinquent behaviour paper offers review critique inventories development construction inventories detailed followed discussion psychometric properties weight evidence suggests inventories related behavioural indices associated antisocial delinquent behaviour recent studies considered factor structure api suggesting dimensions social functioning concluded api piag robust instruments yield valuable clinical research data 1996 association professionals services adolescents introduction uses valid reliable measure adolescent functioning ability engaged clinical work adolescents require measure screening tool full assessment clinical evaluation aided terms process outcome measure empirical research obviously needs valid reliable measures terms measures adolescent social functioning two scales widely literature adolescent problems inventory api adolescent males freedman et al 1978 problem inventory adolescent girls piag gaffney mcfall 1981 purpose present paper offer practitioners researchers overview api piag development adolescent problems inventory original theoretical background api lay social skills model adolescent delinquent behaviour model proposed delinquents show situation specific skill deficits compared nondelinquents mcfall 1982 suggests skill level determines individual perceived social competence situation api designed provide profile young person strengths weaknesses responding demands range social situations api score predictive delinquency offers assessment deficits potentially related delinquent behaviour problem inventory adolescent girls piag developed gaffney mcfall 1981 provide parallel measure female adolescents long term assessments seen providing foundation structure reprint requests correspondence addressed dr c hollin school psychology university birmingham edgbaston birmingham b15 2tt u k 0140 1971 96 04034708 18 00 0 1996 association professionals services adolescents 348 e j palmer c r hollin social skills training programmes delinquent adolescents indicating areas training henderson hollin 1983 1986 hollin 1990 inventory construction api piag developed methodology involving five sequential steps i situational analysis ii item development iii response enumeration iv response evaluation v construction inventory rater manual situational analysis first pool problem situations related delinquency gathered sources establish kinds problem situations experienced teenagers sources literature delinquency adolescence case files institutionalised delinquents interviews teenagers delinquents nondelinquents adults teachers parents social workers probation officers youth counsellors psychologists involved adolescents adolescent delinquents array situations reduced selecting dissimilar amount overlap problem situations rated common difficult sample delinquents stage problem situations typically involved interactions peers parents adults item development general problem situations translated specific items setting scene characters history goal social situation two types item differed question posed respondents 1 say 2 go solving problem api re visiting aunt town don t know guys age re walking street guy walking pass bumps lose balance say latter api saturday morning planned day look forward day feel bored thinking need kicks solving problem stage 90 potential items api 78 piag response enumeration sample responses items representing wide range social competency obtained delinquent nondelinquent teenagers adults professional experience working juvenile delinquents adolescents asked say typical response situation adults asked suggest best response response evaluation responses independently evaluated adult judges working areas psychology related adolescence responses rated judges respect competence response addition judges asked specify explicitly possible criteria judgements construction inventory rater manual criteria retention 349 adolescent problem inventory item inventory two fold first interjudge agreement response levels competency 75 secondly 25 responses item judged incompetent 75 judges procedure gave api 44 items piag 52 items rater manual formulated score items five point likert scale 0 incompetent 2 incompetent 4 competent incompetent 6 competent 8 competent explicit criteria response evaluation stage manual sample responses level item administration text problem situations presented audiotape respondents items administered verbally written form individual item respondents asked say aloud situation response audiotaped subsequent evaluation criteria manual trained judges transcription responses desirable eliminate coding biases arise tone accent voices problem bias arise multiplechoice formats responses simply circled form judges ratings averaged give mean competency score added give total score mean score preferred total scores inventories informative mcfall 1982 modal score useful alternative indicating commonly level rated competency multiple choice version multiple choice format developed api freedman et al 1978 piag gaffney 1984 quicker alternative open ended format facilitate group administration five response alternatives written item derived scoring criteria manual corresponding five points manual rating scale scores multiple choice versions higher found free response format freedman et al 1978 gaffney 1984 short form gibbs et al 1987 developed inventory adolescent problems short form iapsf shorter open ended format alternative api panel expert judges e g clinical psychologists juvenile detention centre officials independently reviewed original items two criteria 1 relevance current adolescents 2 generic reference gender 22 situations identified retaining situational diversity original inventory iap sf scored five point scale api revised version iap sf compiled male female adolescents gibbs et al 1994 properties api reliability initial study freedman et al 1978 showed api excellent interrater reliability two raters r 0 99 high level reliability matched studies measure reported rs 0 80 gaffney mcfall 1981 dishion et 350 e j palmer c r hollin al 1984 hunter kelley 1986 ward mcfall 1986 leadbeater et al 1989 simonian et al 1991 leeman et al 1993 oyserman saltz 1993 estimate rater consistency two studies asked raters repeat ratings selected items mean r api 0 90 freedman et al 1978 0 91 piag gaffney mcfall 1981 test retest data reliability api piag reliability analyses conducted validation studies items designed situation specific overlap inter item item total correlations expected low internal consistency values slightly inflated due extreme samples validation studies high concern see table 1 validity comparisons performance delinquents nondelinquents api piag report highly significant differences two groups freedman et al 1978 gaffney mcfall 1981 dishion et al 1984 gaffney 1984 ward mcfall 1986 oyserman saltz 1993 delinquent adolescents consistently perform lower level multiple choice free response formats instructed respond best response scores improve delinquents give significantly competent responses nondelinquents freedman et al 1978 discriminant analyses performed api validation study freeman et al 1978 gave validity coefficient r 0 60 89 correct classification respondents delinquents nondelinquents parallel analysis piag gaffney mcfall 1981 produced phi coefficient 0 70 85 correct classification respondents studies api relate scores kind behavioural index conduct official self report sources self report delinquency checklists common relating type frequency behaviours inventory scores significant correlations inventory behavioural index scores showing greater involvement misconduct delinquency associated competent responses reported dishion et al 1984 gaffney 1984 leadbeater et al 1989 leeman et al 1993 oyserman saltz 1993 simonian et al 1991 ward mcfall 1986 studies official delinquency behavioural criterion overwhelmingly significant correlations conduct outside institutions api scores dishion et al 1984 simonian et al 1991 leeman et al 1993 study failed relationship hunter kelley 1986 correlated nine official criteria table 1 internal consistency figures api piag api n 60 piag n 58 mean inter item r 0 39 0 20 mean item total r 0 62 0 43 coefficient alpha 0 97 0 93 figures taken freedman et al 1978 gaffney mcfall 1981 351 adolescent problem inventory institutional antisocial disruptive behaviour api scores found significant associations partly explained short period 3 weeks assessment young people lasted compares monitoring behaviour 6 month period freedman et al 1978 study reported significantly different api scores high low disruptive incarcerated delinquents addition incarcerated delinquent population hains herman 1989 found significant difference high low behavioural functioning individuals defined level token economy system analysis revealed case nonaggressive offenders defined dsm iii criteria veneziano veneziano 1988 divided sample institutionalized juvenile delinquents scores api delinquents competent band showed highest levels disturbance measures impulsivity dangerousness aggression moral values anger family difficulties hollin swaffer 1993 found differences api scores adolescent sex non sex offenders replicating work adult sex offenders looked relationship api scores indices social perception social performance found social perception social performance significantly correlated correlated significantly api scores parenthetically hollin swaffer slightly modified american form api english population reported scores item mean freedman et al delinquent norms mediating variables regard potential mediating variables freedman et al 1978 gaffney mcfall 1981 found significant relationship api scores socio economic status ses gaffney 1984 relationship ses piag scores ses controlled difference delinquent nondelinquent groups piag maintained mixed findings regarding relationship api scores intelligence studies relationship gaffney mcfall 1981 dishion et al 1984 highly significant correlations freedman et al 1978 gaffney 1984 discrepancy function variation iq measurement matching delinquent nondelinquent groups alternatively relationship due mediating variable studies control iq difference delinquent nondelinquent samples measure social competence gaffney 1984 factor structure validation studies api piag explored factor structure inventory statistical clustering techniques freedman et al 1978 gaffney mcfall 1981 lack clear identifiable clusters suggested minimum overlap items surprising finding wide range items api shorter version inventory iap sf proved amenable factor analysis iap sf scores sample 100 incarcerated juvenile delinquents simonian et al 1991 conducted principle components factor analysis produced three factors accounting 41 variance first factor composed items labelled 352 e j palmer c r hollin immediate response demand relating items anger arousing situations perceived demanding immediate response second factor labelled deferred response demand concerning situations afforded time making response third labelled antisocial peer influence situations involved peer pressure three factors showed good internal consistency inter factor correlations low nonsignificant three factors proved differentially related specific behavioural indices institutional behaviour offending turn associated type situations loading factor noted dishion et al 1984 draw attention fact items dealing peer pressure violate social norms laws describing social competence e g social values turn suggests adolescents view situations problematic similarly oyserman saltz 1993 11 api situations found three factor solution scores 230 delinquents nondelinquents three factors labelled competence peers impulsive behaviour competence teachers employers factor differences two studies due different api items population differences simonian et al delinquents oyserman saltz delinquents nondelinquents discussion studies comparing performance delinquents nondelinquents api piag consistently show delinquent young people perform significantly nondelinquents studies concerned delinquents suggest strongly behavioural indices official self report related scores api correlational relationships significant high magnitude low correlations expected scores correlations summary scores mean scores simplify picture api inventory practice pattern skills profile related behaviour looking studies scores obtained delinquents nondelinquents consistency level scores obtained inventories american caucasian populations studies show differences scores attained different cultural backgounds ward mcfall 1986 veneziano veneziano 1988 api situations studies requiring interpersonal vignettes reasons fondacaro heller 1990 employed 12 items elicit causal attributions blame adolescents leadbeater et al 1989 api items elicit interpersonal negotiation strategies high risk youth clearly api piag potentially useful measures research practice conceptual tangle highlighted measures api piag lies distinction terms social skill social competence rubin rosekrasnor 1992 global terms refer social functioning issue exactly api piag measure literature variously refers social skills social competence social problem solving inventories ask young people make judgements likely actions situations social decision making nearest mark social decision making 353 adolescent problem inventory social functioning clearly associated social skill social competence factor analytic studies highlighted social arenas adolescents make decisions related eventual antisocial behaviour practical implications points two fold first likely api piag actually measure specific aspects social cognition taken global measures social competence achieve rounded assessment api piag supplemented general measures social competence social problem solving rubin rose krasnor 1992 second measures tap aspects social cognition follows augmented measures social behaviour observation summary logical step genesis measures potentially answer theoretical questions large scale study looking relationship api piag scores measures adolescent functioning level knowledge turn lead comprehensive sensitive assessments inform research practice references dishion t j loeber r stouthamer loeber m patterson g r 1984 skill deficits male adolescent delinquency journal abnormal child psychology 12 37 54 fondacaro m r heller k 1990 attributional style aggressive adolescent boys journal abnormal child psychology 18 75 89 freedman b j rosenthal l donahoe c p schlundt d g mcfall r m 1978 social behavioral analysis skill deficits delinquent nondelinquent adolescent boys journal consulting clinical psychology 46 1448 1462 gaffney l r 1984 multiple 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