Summary / Abstract

Title: Bulimia and the diffusion status of ego identity formation: similarities of the empirical descriptors of self andparent

Synopsis: A comparison was made between the empirical literature describing the characteristics of bulimicadolescents and the empirical literature describing adolescents in the various identity statuses within Erikson/Marcia'sstage/status theory. A pattern of similarities emerged. Bulimics and diffused persons have been described as having personalcharacteristics and familial descriptors which are similar. No comparable similarities were found for the other well researchedtransitional statuses, that is, moratorium, foreclosure, or achievement. Present theories of bulimia suggest that a disruption inthe second individuation occurs. However, none have attempted to operationalize the disruption in the adolescent individuation interms of the transitional status. The comparison of two empirical literatures leads to a number of testable hypotheses that mayadvance the understanding of bulimia. bulimia, adolescents, diffusion, self, disorders, Psychology, statuses, control, personality, parent, descriptors, eating disorders, scale, comparison, perceiving, similarities, identity formation, ego identity, intimacy, commitment, report, literature, Adams, Marcia, self esteem, interactions, nervosa, foreclosure, moratorium, families,

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Additional keywords for: Bulimia and the diffusion status of ego identity formation: similarities of the empirical descriptors of self andparent

journal adolescence 1996 19 333 338 bulimia diffusion status ego identity formation similarities empirical descriptors self parent beth auslander richard m dunham comparison made empirical literature describing characteristics bulimic adolescents empirical literature describing adolescents identity statuses erikson marcia stage status theory pattern similarities emerged bulimics diffused persons described personal characteristics familial descriptors comparable similarities found researched transitional statuses moratorium foreclosure achievement present theories bulimia suggest disruption second individuation occurs attempted operationalize disruption adolescent individuation terms transitional status comparison two empirical literatures leads number testable hypotheses advance understanding bulimia 1996 association professionals services adolescents introduction purpose brief paper report parallels findings empirical studies bulimia findings empirical studies diffusion status adolescent identity transition study simultaneous review two literatures conducted bulimia disorder characterized binge purge behavior preoccupation weight body image binge occurs person consumes large amount food short time period regain control eating person engages purge compensatory behaviors vomiting laxatives dieting exercising excessively diagnositic statistic manual mental disorder iv dsmiv american psychiatric association 1993 diagnosis bulimia nervosa requires individual experience two binges week 3 consecutive months diagnosis commonly occurs late adolescence early adulthood erik erikson 1968 theory identity formation useful understanding development bulimic individual conceptualizes life cycle eight developmental stages composed specific conflicts adolescent period erikson theorizes individual faced conflict identity versus role confusion individuals form clear sense self maladjusted self destructive addition probability successfully resolve subsequent stages intimacy versus isolation markedly reduced marcia 1966 furthered erikson theory stating identity formation categorized four statuses based individual levels exploration reprint requests correspondence addressed r m dunham phd department psychology florida state university tallahassee florida 32306 1051 u 0140 1971 96 04033306 18 00 0 1996 association professionals services adolescents 334 b auslander r m dunham commitment immature status diffusion describes individual experienced little exploration commitment personal values goals beliefs two studies investigated identity bulimic subjects weinreich et al 1985 identity structure analysis isa assesses identity combination psychodynamic symbolic interactionist personal construct perspectives computer program called idex based approach identity defined person identification disassociation significant social world p 298 bulimics found sustain poor self images time recent study schupak neuberg nemeroff 1993 reported bulimics experienced identity confusion poorer self concept time normals non bulimic binge eaters concluded bulimics view body image selfimage authors stated regulating food intake means defining self deregulation escape self binge occurs order escape painful self awareness individual sense self returns begins feel negative purges food concept identity directly examined theoretical framework erikson marcia studies review empirical literatures describing bulimics persons transitional identity statuses revealed similarities descriptors invoked bulimia invoked diffusion status similarities fall two broad categories personal characteristics familial characteristics personal characteristics bulimics bulimics described socially maladjusted johnson berndt 1983 norman herzog 1984 perceive social support negative interactions social skills poorer relationships grissett norvell 1992 stronger fear intimacy pruitt et al 1992 normal individuals literature bulimics found dependent depressed immature anxious scott baroffio 1986 mizes 1988 anxiety managed escape avoidance behaviors keck fiebert 1986 reality testing poor identity related problems evident scott baroffio 1986 addition bulimics perceive externally controlled dykens gerrard 1986 williams et al 1990 report lower self esteem engage sensation seeking behaviors normal individuals dykens gerrard 1986 diffused persons researchers suggested unresolved identity associated lower levels intimacy orlofsky et al 1973 craig bray et al 1988 nonexploring statuses diffusion foreclosure perceive lower quality lower intimacy relationships adolescents achievement moratorium craig bray et al 1988 orlofsky et al 1973 found true diffused foreclosed adolescents prager 1982 found low levels self esteem diffused adolescents diffused foreclosed individuals shown feel externally controlled marcia 1967 impulsive slugoski et al 1984 adolescents achievement moratorium marcia 1967 theoretical paper cited logan 1978 335 bulimia ego identity formation theorized non committed statuses diffusion moratorium exhibit lower levels self esteem higher levels anxiety escape avoidance behaviors comparison committed statuses fills clear gap nicely matching results empirical studies bulimics parental characteristics bulimics clinical non clinical populations bulimic individuals describe parents expressive cohesive participatory family activities stern et al 1989 kent clopton 1988 bailey 1991 found bulimic symptoms increased perceived family cohesiveness decreased conflict dysfunction scalf mciver thompson 1989 increased sights richards 1984 conducted study investigating traits parent bulimics perceived mothers domineering controlling fathers emotionally distant diffused persons papini et al 1989 found diffused adolescents described families cohesive communicative adolescents statuses diffused adolescents perceive parents rejecting physically affectionate adams 1985 fathers diffused youths characterized withdrawing adams 1985 mothers perceived overcontrolling domineering adams jones 1983 individuals non committed statuses diffusion moratorium reported affection parents committed statuses foreclosures achievement campbell et al 1984 parallel structure descriptions clearer reduced tabular form table 1 conclusion review literature bulimia identity reveals similarities familial descriptors personality characteristics interpersonal styles adolescents bulimic identity diffused comparable similarities found moratorium foreclosure achievement intriguing similarities suggest testable hypotheses conditions origins interpersonal processes family bruch 1973 hypothesized eating disordered patients develop self identity self awareness self effectiveness body identity likely formation independent self encouraged bulimic family environment williams et al 1990 hypothesis bulimia partly product diffused identity status pathological expression diffusion contribute distinctively pathological expressions factors control choice expression bulimia pathological expression diffusion represent failure second individuation parallels diffusion specific bulimia psychopathology general reasonable developmental problems characteristic disorders i e concerning self related problems borderline personality disorder relationship negate potential importance perceiving bulimia self related disorder 336 b auslander r m dunham table 1 description bulimic individuals diffused adolescents bulimic individuals diffused adolescents personal characteristics negative interactions negative interactions social interactions scale rochester interaction record grissett norvell 1992 craig bray et al 1988 low quality relationships low quality relationships quality relationships inventory intimacy interview grissett norvell 1992 craig bray et al 1988 fear intimacy low intimacy fear intimacy scale intimacy status semi structured pruitt et al 1992 orlofsky et al 1973 low social support high isolation perceived support scale craig bray et al 1988 grissett norvell 1992 external locus control external locus control internal external locus control scale manipulation self esteem concept williams et al 1990 dykens gerrand 1996 attainment task low self esteem marcia 1967 low self esteem tennessee self concept scale texas social behavior inventory dykens gerrard 1986 prager 1982 implusive implusive mmpi 168 paragraph completion test mizes 1988 slugoski et al 1984 sensation seeking sensation seeking individual interview dykens gerrard 1986 immature problems indentity anxious anxious mmpi scott baroffio 1986 escape avoidance escape avoidance avoidance existential confrontation scale theoretically keck fiebert 1986 logan 1978 family characteristics low cohesiveness low cohesiveness family adaptability cohesion scale iii low expressiveness papini et al 1989 conflicted low communication family environment scale parent adolescent communication scale stern et al 1989 scalf mciver thompson 1989 papini et al 1989 bailey 1991 kent clopton 1992 low affection parent adolescent relationship questionnaire campbell et al 1984 maternal characteristics controlling controlling domineering domineering parent characteristics rating scales child rearing perception sights richards 1984 adams jones 1983 paternal characteristics distant withdrawing parental characteristics rating scales parent behavior inventory parent child sights richards 1984 interaction rating scale cornell parent behavior description adams 1985 337 bulimia ego identity formation findings reported raised dilemma state vs trait interpretation pathology bulimia heretofore understood stage derived stage related present findings lead understanding bulimics tend adolescent female addition identity statuses showed overlap respect personality interpersonal characteristics participants studies divided non committed vs committed statuses non exploring vs exploring statuses personality interpersonal characteristics mentioned necessarily related pure diffusion diffusion specific life domains research needed determine domains relate bulimic pathology recognized parallel structure findings reported perfect entirely credible unclear points diffusion se implies qualities like found bulimics parallel structure consequence lack commitment limited exploration meaning limited fact bulimics compared normal non pathological subjects age group characteristics diffused individuals established comparisons subjects statuses juxtapositions rule artifact generated discontinuity comparisons hoped present report generate research combining bulimia identity literatures particular importance examination possible interplay bulimia diffusion low commitment levels identity formation view bulimia disorder identity development highlight possible sources symptoms provide new treatment perspectives advancement bulimia research references adams g r 1985 family correlates female adolescents ego identity development journal adolescence 8 69 82 adams g r jones r m 1983 female adolescents identity 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