Summary / Abstract

Title: Adolescent focal theories: age-trends in developmental transitions

Synopsis: Focal theory is considered as a framework for looking at psychosocial and leisure transitions in middleand later adolescence. Although these transitions are examined from a different perspective in the present study, by utilisingcross-sectional survey data from a representative sample of three age groups of young Scots (13–14, 15–16 and17–18 year-olds), the results confirm and extend the general age-trends in relational issues and leisure involvement reportedin original studies. Within this overall picture, few gender differences are found in age-related relational transitions, butgender differences are apparent in shifting focuses of leisure involvement with age. Further, the findings suggest a linkagebetween relational issues in adolescence and leisure contexts, where psychosocial processes are seen to be associated withcontextual changes in young people's lives. Focal theory has been criticised for a failure to take true account of the socialcircumstances, constraints and contexts affecting adolescent development, but in the present study surprisingly few differences arefound with respect to the young person's social class of family background, for example, with age-trends in developmentaltransitions similar for all social groups. By contrast, in later adolescence aspects of the young person's own socio-economicposition, rather than that of their family background, are clearly linked to both relational issues and leisure involvement, forexample, creating a disrupting effect on those young people who are currently unemployed or non-employed at this age. leisure, adolescence, age, gender, context, leisure transitions, age group, leisure involvement, middle, Hendry, adolescent focal theories, social class, gender differences, picture, olds, findings, focal theory, Glendinning, peer acceptance, representation, commercial leisure, social class background, informal leisure, principal components analysis, local neighbourhood, self peer acceptance, economic activity, associations, perceptions, adult authority,

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Additional keywords for: Adolescent focal theories: age-trends in developmental transitions

journal adolescence 1996 19 307 320 adolescent focal theories age trends developmental transitions l b hendry glendinning j shucksmith focal theory considered framework looking psychosocial leisure transitions middle adolescence transitions examined different perspective present study utilising cross sectional survey data representative sample three age groups young scots 13 14 15 16 17 18 year olds results confirm extend general age trends relational issues leisure involvement reported original studies picture gender differences found age related relational transitions gender differences apparent shifting focuses leisure involvement age findings suggest linkage relational issues adolescence leisure contexts psychosocial processes seen associated contextual changes young people lives focal theory criticised failure take true account social circumstances constraints contexts affecting adolescent development present study surprisingly differences found respect young person social class family background age trends developmental transitions social groups contrast adolescence aspects young person socio economic position family background clearly linked relational issues leisure involvement creating disrupting effect young people currently unemployed non employed age 1996 association professionals services adolescents introduction paper sets consider aspects developmental transitions adolescence suggested coleman hendry 1990 focal theories empirically different approach presenting original focal theory model coleman 1974 argued transition childhood adulthood achieved substantial adjustments psychological social nature suggested young people negotiate period life cycle evidence profound stress emotional upheaval focusing developmental issue time different relationship patterns associated issues concerns come focus different ages sense prominent coleman careful point patterns overlap resolution issue essential facing fixed sequence adolescent inevitably follow based detailed interview studies coleman found majority young people particular themes concerns came focus prominent particular ages concerns acceptance rejection peers reprint requests correspondence addressed l b hendry department education king college university aberdeen aberdeen ab9 2ub u k 0140 1971 96 04030714 18 00 0 1996 association professionals services adolescents 308 l b hendry glendinning j shucksmith prominent middle adolescence whilst conflicts parents seen increasing significance middle adolescence hendry 1983 utilised focal theory perspective look changes continuities adolescent leisure preferences behaviour i e shifting focus leisure interests argued focus shifts casual pursuits informal leisure contexts middle adolescence commercially organised leisure contexts pubs clubs discos adolescence hendry suggested leisure transitions concurrent main relationship patterns identified coleman involvement casual leisure pursuits seen linked relational issue peer acceptance rejection significance middle adolescence perspective informal leisure contexts provide setting developing social roles skills values away adult scrutiny controls young person seek re affirmation peers young people continue attracted formal adult led activities organisations age structured settings seen interest relevance adolescents prefer hang local neighbourhood friends allied developing autonomy family young people try leisure behaviours roles increasingly social norm adolescence early adulthood involvement commercial leisure provision discos clubs pubs confirm sense independence particular parents seen linked relational issue conflict parents young people leisure pursuits raise concerns parents appropriateness adolescent maturity engage activities suggested links leisure pursuits relational issues adolescence acknowledge role background factors constraining choices preferences young people role family sub cultural norms financial constraints critics cited failure focal theory take sufficient account social constraints contexts fundamental weakness coffield et al 1986 noted coleman 1974 original samples drawn grammar public schools upper academic streams comprehensive schools present paper sets consider aspects relational leisure transitions middle adolescence young person perspective perspective derived survey data recent large scale study scottish youth paper considers four key questions 1 empirical evidence provide support general pattern age related developmental transitions proposed two focal theories 2 effect gender patterns developmental transitions 3 effect family background socio economic circumstances 4 connections exist tie leisure contexts pursuits relational transitions methodology analysis based data drawn young people leisure lifestyle project hendry et al 1993 present findings derive first cross sectional survey sweep study relate three age cohorts young people respondents three 309 adolescent focal theories age groups 13 14 n 2049 15 16 n 2140 17 18 n 998 years old sample drawn 30 secondary schools located scotland selected random education directory listings survey schools sample stratified three year groups younger two age groups second year fourth year pupils questionnaire administered school guidance field worker absentees followed response rate excess 90 achieved old age group questionnaire administered post address lists provided schools young people group left secondary school reminders sent eventual response rate 50 achieved older age group aims present paper locate adolescent relational leisure transitions suggested focal theory broader context young person social position clearly important consider socio economic gender compositions achieved survey sample construction 17 18 yearold cohort particular concern relatively low response rate age group table 1 provides details distribution parental social class head household reported young people data indicate class composition sample largely unaffected gender age respondent comparisons datasets opcs 1989 indicate sample fairly representative national picture final row table suggests slight representation females compared males older cohort 52 48 pattern non response gender reach statistical significance postal survey sample table 2 profiles table 1 distribution parental social class gender age group social class males females britain head household 13 14 15 16 17 18 13 14 15 16 17 18 non manual occupations 44 46 46 44 47 46 46 skilled manual occupations 36 34 33 35 32 34 36 semi unskilled occupations 20 20 21 21 21 20 18 total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 unemployed n 146 159 73 154 158 76 unclassified n 129 136 67 128 134 71 households n 1030 1076 483 1019 1064 515 1987 general household survey figures households dependent children source opcs 1989 table 2 distribution current economic activity status gender 17 18 year olds current economic activity status total youth employed un non employed school college training males 34 7 9 34 16 100 females 35 11 10 33 11 100 34 9 10 34 13 100 310 l b hendry glendinning j shucksmith current circumstances young people older cohort terms economic activity status opposed parental occupations seen table third sample older adolescents stay school sixth year secondary education turning description variables analysis fall three broad areas 1 structural factors i e age gender socio economic status 2 relational factors i e perceptions self peer family relations 3 leisure factors i e informal casual commercial leisure contexts looking firstly structural factors measure socio economic status young person family derived selfreports parental occupations occupation head household family household occupants identified young person categorised terms registrar general classification occupations categories collapsed form three social groupings families non manual households skilled manual households semi unskilled households young person self reports economic activity status provide measure current social position meaningful older cohort respondents younger two age cohorts officially school completing statutory phase secondary education current economic activity status defined terms five groupings young people secondary education school tertiary education college youth employment training schemes paid employment youth training schemes currently unemployed non employed respect relational issues adolescence 18 questionnaire items analysis items typically allow five categories response indicate level agreement statement e g i like i am general terms 18 items relate perceptions self relationships parents aspects peer conformity acceptance case leisure transitions 12 questionnaire items analysis relate informal leisure contexts e g hanging street friends commercial leisure contexts e g going pub responses questionnaire items four point scale typically indicate degree involvement section outline approach taken analysis description statistical methods employed 18 questionnaire items characterising relational issues middle adolescence first entered principal components analysis aim summarise data terms smaller manageable number underlying factors relational factors examined variations respect young person age gender social class family background young person socio economic position case 17 18 year olds done conducting series anovas relational factors identified principal components analysis treated turn dependent variable age gender social class background treated independent grouping variables analysis possible examine effects gender social class developmental issues test focal theory applicable sexes social groupings analytical approach repeated 12 leisure items factors relating leisure transitions first identified principal components analysis factors examined variations respect age gender social class conducting series anovas final step analysis correlations relational factors leisure factors identified principal 311 adolescent focal theories components analyses examined age group separately order identify links relational issues leisure activities middle adolescence findings results principal components analysis 18 questionnaire items presented table 3 items relate aspects adolescent psychosocial development six factors identified analysis account half variance input data despite loss information rotated factor solution provides clear meaningful picture relational issues middle adolescence interpretations factor solution made examining loading input variables individual factors done table 3 factor 1 relates peer popularity acceptance terms behaviours preferences appearance popularity refers young person friends peers general factors 2 3 relate family relations young person perspective second factor representing perceived levels parental criticism control third factor reflecting perceived levels parental support acceptance fourth factor relates general attitudes parental adult authority fifth factor linked positive self image feelings social competence whilst final factor reflects sense social table 3 perceptions self peer acceptance family relations adolescence results principal components analysis indicating loadings input variables factor solution obtained factors varimax rotation factor cumulative loadings variance 0 5 explained 1 unpopular friends don t drink 0 76 12 8 unpopular friends don t smoke 0 71 unpopular friends seen unfashionable 0 67 popular seen like friends appearance interests 0 61 2 parent strong views appearance 0 74 22 3 parent critical friends 0 68 parent know go free time 0 63 3 get parent 0 72 31 6 parent support encourage interests activities 0 72 feel parent expectations high 0 56 4 young people outside home business 0 74 40 2 feel parents ought stricter young people 0 72 feel parents expect young people 0 69 5 i like i am 0 73 48 1 describe self easy get 0 69 6 describe self finds hard make friends 0 75 54 9 spend lot free time 0 66 kaiser meyer olkin 0 7 312 l b hendry glendinning j shucksmith isolation six relational factors seen represent different aspects young person perceptions self peer acceptance family relations six separate three anovas conducted relational factor age gender social class family background entered independent grouping variables analysis evidence found significant three interaction age gender class analyses evidence found significant two interactions age class gender class words effects age gender relational issues adolescence appear largely independent young person social class background far relational issues characterised factors identified turning consideration gender differences shifting patterns selfperceptions peer acceptable family relations adolescent years data presented table 4 provide evidence interaction age gender restricted third factor differences developmental trend focused youngest age group adolescent males young men 13 14 years age appear feel supported parents additional main effect gender first factor peer acceptance apparently issue males females middle adolescence findings presented far suggest shifting focus relational issues adolescence considered independently social class background lesser extent gender general patterns psychosocial development evident irrespective social position young person family whilst developmental differences boys girls earlier adolescence table 4 variations perceptions self peer acceptance family relations adolescent years mean factor score gender age group n significant p 0 05 p 0 01 factor 1 factor 2 factor 3 drinking smoking fashion parent seen parent seen important peer popularity critical controlling supportive accepting age 13 14 15 16 17 18 13 14 15 16 17 18 13 14 15 16 17 18 years old male 0 06 0 16 0 17 0 08 male 0 20 0 06 0 32 0 01 male 0 22 0 08 0 10 0 03 female 0 07 0 02 0 29 0 08 female 0 21 0 05 0 28 0 01 female 0 04 0 06 0 07 0 03 0 01 0 09 0 22 0 00 0 21 0 06 0 30 0 00 0 13 0 07 0 08 0 00 age gender agegender n age gender n agegender n age gender n agegender factor 4 factor 5 factor 6 challenge parental like i am hard make friends adult authority easy get spend lot free time age 13 14 15 16 17 18 13 14 15 16 17 18 13 14 15 16 17 18 years old male 0 05 0 15 0 19 0 02 male 0 11 0 03 0 18 0 01 male 0 04 0 03 0 05 0 01 female 0 04 0 12 0 22 0 02 female 0 09 0 03 0 12 0 01 female 0 02 0 01 0 03 0 01 0 04 0 13 0 21 0 00 0 10 0 03 0 15 0 00 0 03 0 02 0 04 0 00 age gender n agegender n age gender n agegender n age n gender n agegender n 313 adolescent focal theories data presented table 4 provide picture developmental trends five six factors giving main effects age mean scores first factor suggest acknowledgement peer group norms associated drinking smoking fashions appearance interests peak 15 16 years age show marked decline interestingly challenges parental adult authority peak 15 16 years age parallels peer acceptance looking perceptions family relations parental criticisms controls steadily decline age whilst supportive relationships feature earlier adolescence data indicate progressive strengthening self concept growth self esteem age feelings social isolation apparently unaffected age considered separately age gender social class background impact peer family relations seen table 5 young people middle class families likely view parents supportive whilst young people relatively advantaged home backgrounds correspondingly likely concerns peer acceptance appear associated social class background terms main effects social class relatively differences respect young person family background data presented table 6 provide different picture adolescence young person social circumstances considered current circumstances table 5 family background perceptions self peer acceptance family relations adolescence mean factor score parental social class factors social class head household non skilled semi manual manual unskilled 1 popular drink smoke fashionable 0 07 0 01 0 05 2 parent seen critical controlling n 0 03 0 01 0 01 3 parent seen supportive accepting 0 15 0 02 0 12 4 challenge parental adult authority n 0 02 0 01 0 04 5 like i am easy going n 0 04 0 01 0 03 6 hard make friends lot time n 0 04 0 03 0 03 n significant p 0 05 p 0 01 table 6 current circumstances perceptions self peer acceptance family relations adolescence mean factor score current economic activity status 17 18 year olds factors current economic activity status youth employed un nonschool college training employed 1 popular drink smoke fashionable 0 36 0 26 0 15 0 16 0 08 2 parent seen critical controlling 0 22 0 24 0 18 0 42 0 43 3 parent seen supportive accepting 0 12 0 06 0 07 0 08 0 55 4 challenge parental adult authority n 0 18 0 25 0 27 0 26 0 24 5 like i am easy going 0 15 0 16 0 29 0 26 0 04 6 hard make friends lot time 0 19 0 07 0 12 0 13 0 19 n significant p 0 05 p 0 01 314 l b hendry glendinning j shucksmith age linked relational issues number ways un non employed youth continue rate acceptance conformity peer group norms relatively important whilst young people full time education likely acknowledge peer pressures importance relaxation parental controls marked young people full time education whilst un non employed youth likely view parents unsupportive raised sense self esteem social integration likely young people engaged youth labour market employment employment training correspondingly lower levels self esteem social integration likely un non employed whilst situation complex young people remain school different sets circumstances linked different patterns transition adult status delays situations rapid transitions un non employed youth particular picture relatively speaking negative findings indicative poorer self esteem feelings social isolation allied detachment parents continued conformity behavioural norms commonly associated middle adolescence worth noting additional analyses show picture obtained data presented table 6 holds equally females males words data suggest adolescence links relational factors current circumstances largely unaffected gender purposes analysis un non employed youth treated group examine leisure transitions adolescence results principal components analysis 12 questionnaire items presented table 7 four factors identified analysis interpreted follows informal leisure associations friends home commercial leisure attendance pubs commercial leisure attendance cinemas discos informal leisure associations friends local neighbourhood four separate three anovas conducted leisure factor age gender social class family background independent variables results analyses suggest table 7 adolescent leisure involvement results principal components analysis indicating loadings input variables factor solution obtained factors varimax rotation factor cumulative loadings variance 0 5 explained 1 friends visit regularly 0 88 16 8 visit friends home regularly 0 87 2 go pub regularly 0 81 32 1 alcohol major item expenditure 0 77 cigarettes major item expenditure 0 58 3 entertainments cinema disco major item expenditure 0 79 45 5 go cinema regularly 0 67 go disco regularly 0 57 4 hang street friends 0 78 56 4 spend lot free time sex group friends 0 74 kaiser meyer olkin 0 7 315 adolescent focal theories leisure transitions adolescence considered largely independent young person social class background evidence significant three interactions analyses evidence significant two interactions age social class gender social class data presented table 8 show significant main effects respect age three four leisure factors gender significant interaction effect leisure transitions two factors considered additionally main effects gender four factors outline complex interactions age gender factor turn little evidence transition effects first factor adolescent females consistently likely male contemporaries visit visited friends irrespective age contrast data show rapid growth frequency pub attendance age growth marked males females middle adolescence onwards steady increase commercial leisure involvement shown cinema disco attendance pub attendance pattern growth sexes pub attendance females likely males participate commercial leisure pursuits ages local neighbourhood informal context young people associate group friends linked age gender data suggest local neighbourhood important informal leisure context males middle adolescence involvement declines rapidly decline marked young women findings suggest transitions leisure involvement occur table 8 variations leisure involvement adolescent years mean factor score gender age group n significant p 0 05 p 0 01 factor 1 factor 2 casual leisure commercial leisure home context pubs alcohol age 13 14 15 16 17 18 13 14 15 16 17 18 years old male 0 17 0 18 0 16 0 18 male 0 41 0 12 0 82 0 05 female 0 15 0 20 0 19 0 18 female 0 41 0 01 0 63 0 05 0 02 0 01 0 02 0 00 0 41 0 06 0 72 0 00 age n gender agegender n age gender agegender factor 3 factor 4 commercial leisure casual leisure cinemas discos neighbourhood context age 13 14 15 16 17 18 13 14 15 16 17 18 years old male 0 30 0 16 0 09 0 18 male 0 19 0 20 0 49 0 08 female 0 02 0 17 0 39 0 18 female 0 11 0 11 0 81 0 08 0 14 0 01 0 24 0 00 0 15 0 16 0 66 0 00 age gender agegender n age gender agegender 316 l b hendry glendinning j shucksmith adolescent years informal context local neighbourhood commercially oriented leisure pursuits cinemas discos pubs findings indicate adolescent leisure transitions gender dependent transitions largely unaffected young person social class background seen data presented table 9 social class background impact adolescent leisure pursuits albeit independently age gender interestingly differences focused informal leisure contexts home local neighbourhood whilst data suggest class based differences young people commercial leisure involvement differences terms social position appear pronounced respect young person circumstances adolescence characterised current economic activity status seen table 10 leisure involvement adolescence 17 18 years age clearly linked current economic activity status picture broadly young people college paid employment employment training schemes raised levels commercial leisure involvement three groups college students involved informal contexts two extremes young people stay secondary school young people currently un non employed stand different stay school apparently involved informal peer oriented leisure contexts involved commercial adult oriented leisure pursuits pattern differences marked un non employed youth young people circumstances likely continue table 9 family background adolescent leisure involvement mean factor score parental social class factors social class head household non skilled semi manual manual unskilled casual leisure home context 0 10 0 08 0 03 commercial leisure pubs alcohol n 0 01 0 03 0 02 commercial leisure cinemas discos n 0 07 0 02 0 03 casual leisure neighbourhood context 0 15 0 07 0 06 n significant p 0 05 p 0 01 table 10 current circumstances leisure involvement adolescence mean factor score economic activity status 17 18 year olds factors current economic activity status youth employed un nonschool college training employed casual leisure home context 0 20 0 01 0 23 0 25 0 01 commercial leisure pubs alcohol 0 42 0 75 0 94 0 95 0 94 commercial leisure cinema discos 0 23 0 49 0 35 0 37 0 16 casual leisure neighbourhood context 0 59 0 78 0 50 0 59 0 06 p 0 01 317 adolescent focal theories local neighbourhood informal context meeting friends compared young people age allied pattern informal leisure involvement unand non employed youth likely go cinemas discos limiting commercial leisure pursuits pub attendance final remark additional analyses show profiles leisure involvement respect young person current circumstances largely unaffected gender patterns obtained young women young men economic status group un nonemployed youth treated group analysis return question interrelationships leisure activities contexts relational issues middle adolescence inter correlations six relational factors four leisure factors examined age group separately results presented table 11 first looking associations common age groups i e 13 14 15 16 17 18 year olds feelings social isolation negatively associated home informal setting meeting friends commercial leisure activities cinema going addition table 11 associations relational issues leisure involvement age group correlation coefficients 0 10 0 10 p 0 001 perceptions self peer acceptance leisure involvement family relations casual commercial commercial casual factors home pubs cinema neighbourhood context alcohol discos context 13 14 year olds popular drink smoke fashionable 0 12 0 13 parent critical controlling 0 12 parent supportive accepting 0 10 0 10 challenge parental adult authority 0 10 0 16 like i am easy going hard make friends time 0 15 0 11 0 23 15 16 year olds popular drink smoke fashionable 0 20 0 15 parent critical controlling parent supportive accepting 0 15 0 13 challenge parental adult authority 0 25 0 22 like i am easy going hard make friends time 0 22 0 15 0 10 0 25 17 18 year olds popular drink smoke fashionable parent critical controlling 0 12 parent supportive accepting 0 19 0 12 challenge parental adult authority 0 20 0 15 like i am easy going 0 15 0 14 hard make friends time 0 20 0 13 0 19 key associations marked bold common three age groups associations underlined restricted 13 14 15 16 year old age groups associations italicised restricted 15 16 17 18 year old age groups entries plain text represent associations specific age group 318 l b hendry glendinning j shucksmith perceptions supportive home environment negatively associated alcohol consumption pub attendance local neighbourhood informal leisure context conversely rejection parental adult authority positively associated alcohol consumption pub attendance hanging local neighbourhood looking associations common younger age groups i e 13 14 15 16 year olds feelings social isolation negatively associated local neighbourhood whilst peer conformity acceptance positively associated alcohol consumption pub attendance hanging local neighbourhood looking associations common older age groups i e 15 16 17 18 year olds limited negative association feelings social isolation pub attendance looking associations specific particular age group 13 14 year olds perceptions controlling critical parents negatively associated home context informal setting meeting friends 17 18 year olds perceptions parental control criticism positively associated pub attendance whilst feelings social competence associated raised levels involvement commercial leisure activities findings suggest complex pattern interrelationships relational issues leisure contexts middle adolescence closer examination reveals relatively coherent underlying picture look hanging local neighbourhood pub attendance representative transition informal peer oriented context commercially oriented context see clear links relational issues middle adolescence involvement leisure contexts appear associated perceptions unsupportive family environment challenge parental authority middle adolescence involvement linked concerns peer acceptance conformity addition hanging friends linked feelings social integration cross sectional data presented suggests pattern changes adolescence adolescence pub context local neighbourhood associated sense social competence social integration addition pub attendance linked perceptions parental criticisms controls concerns peer acceptance conformity patterns association indicative agerelated transition informal leisure settings commercial contexts linked relational issues social integration peer acceptance independence family conclusion summarise results present study different empirical approach representative sample scottish adolescents general age trends relational issues concerns obtain originally reported work coleman 1970s coleman hendry 1990 young person perspective general cross sectional picture provided present study suggests issues concerns peer acceptance challenge adult authority prominent middle adolescence whilst parental controls support seen progressively diminish adolescent years reflects increasing focus 319 adolescent focal theories independence family parallels growing sense self esteem social competence young people results consistent coleman observation age trends relational issues females males evidence gender differences earlier adolescence females likely males view home environment supportive analysis extended scope coleman original research aspects family context i e social class family background patterns developmental transition adolescence found broadly social groups important finding criticisms levelled focal theory failing take true account social constraints contexts affect processes psychosocial development adolescence coffield et al 1986 results confirm general age trends adolescent leisure involvement proposed hendry coleman hendry 1990 cross sectional picture provided present study suggests casual informal leisure activities outwith home hanging friends local neighbourhood peak middle adolescence fall away rapidly whilst commercial leisure venues cinemas discos clubs pubs steadily increase importance adolescent years reach peak adolescence gender differences evident leisure transitions decline local neighbourhood seen marked young women increase pub attendance marked young men presents complex picture gender differences proposed hendry 1983 model adolescent leisure transitions contrast patterning leisure transitions respect social class background presents simpler picture originally proposed hendry results certainly suggest young people leisure involvement linked social class background social class differences relate casual commercial leisure involvement key finding age trends leisure involvement broadly social groupings results associations relational issues leisure preferences behaviours adolescence suggest linkage psychosocial focuses leisure contexts young people order meet developmental needs e g silbereisen et al 1987 noack silbereisen 1988 cotterall 1991 present study shifting focus informal peer oriented local neighbourhood context commercial pub context associated issues family support control challenge parental authority issues peer acceptance perceptions social competence social integration gullotta et al 1990 point competent young people active agents reactive environmental developmental circumstances research perspective support lerner 1985 view dynamic interactions occur socialisation process young people pace adolescent transition real sense term active agents development notion self efficacy young person active agent certainly concur conclusion adolescent developmental transitions operate largely independently social class background appear conflict conclusions coffield et al 1986 individual social position circumstances considerable role play processes psychological adjustment development adolescence findings older adolescents demonstrate important make clear distinction individual family circumstances e g social class 320 l b hendry glendinning j shucksmith family background circumstances adolescence e g current socioeconomic position potential importance social factors constraints clearly illustrated present study pattern associations young person current occupational status leisure pursuits preferences relational issues concerns particular findings indicate youth unemployment non employment associated disrupted pattern relational concerns leisure involvement compared young people adolescence key effect youth unemployment transition adult status expectations increasing autonomy frustrated life style choices limited coffield et al 1986 hendry raymond 1986 conclusion series age trends relational leisure transitions identified present cross sectional study provide important markers future research adolescent development evidence present study coleman original focal theory continues provide adequate general description age trends developmental issues concerns middle adolescence surprising societal changes occurred publication coleman original theory 20 years ago focused processoriented longitudinal approach required order provide substantial empirical support necessary full confirmation adolescent focal theory new theoretical perspective adolescent development need take account patterning relational leisure transitions reported present study particular coalition psychosocial processes contextual changes adolescence references coffield f borrill c marshall 1986 growing margins milton keynes open university press coleman j c 1974 relationships adolescence london routledge kegan paul coleman j c hendry l b 1990 nature adolescence 2nd edn london routledge cotterall j 1991 emergence adolescent territories large urban leisure environment journal environmental psychology 11 1 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