Summary / Abstract

Title: Outlook on life: how adolescents and children view the life-style of parents, adults and self

Synopsis: A new Outlook on Life measure was constructed to identify how adolescents and children see their lives.Three scales were formed and named the View of Parents, View of Adults and View of Self scales. The three scales were found tocorrelate highly with subjects' emotional state: the more positive views they had of their parents, adults and their own life,the less depressed they felt. life, adolescents, depression, adults, parents, outlook, scale, Lau, self, lives, personality, adjustment, experiences, items, psychology, emotionality, RADS emotionality, Reynolds Adolescent Depression, CDI overall depression, Chinese, child development, Forman, tend, correlate, life style, conceptions, Baumrind, distinction, evidence, Professionals,

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Additional keywords for: Outlook on life: how adolescents and children view the life-style of parents, adults and self

journal adolescence 1996 19 293 296 brief report outlook life adolescents children view life style parents adults self sing lau winnie lau new outlook life measure constructed identify adolescents children see lives three scales formed named view parents view adults view self scales three scales found correlate highly subjects emotional state positive views parents adults life depressed felt 1996 association professionals services adolescents introduction meaning life great significance development allport 1955 white 1975 furth 1980 helps endure overcome life difficulties despite empirical research touched topic directly purpose study explore issue developing new scale measure adolescents children outlook life parents adults begin ask adolescents children discernible outlook life answer affirmative young people affected life experiences cynically view world environment negatively tend behave direct research carried ample evidence show children young age tend clear albeit incorrect world views ideas life experiences distinction mind body inagaki hatano 1993 relationship religious rules morality nucci turiel 1993 literature parenting parents shown persons behaviours significant children development baumrind 1971 lau cheung 1987 accordance social ecological approach bronfenbrenner 1979 forman forman 1981 children affected experience kind people adults encounter research selfconcept indicated adolescents children view competently positive life experiences tend show better adjustment baumrind 1971 lau leung 1992 reprint request correspondence addressed lau center child development hong kong baptist university 224 waterloo road kowloon hong kong study supported rgc grant first author university grants committee larger extended report available author 0140 1971 96 03029304 18 00 0 1996 association professionals services adolescents 294 lau w lau based evidence reasonable significant explore view life adolescents children begin views life style self parents adults general representation adult world examined expected positive adolescent child outlook life better adjusted development appear terms lower depression method sample 283 chinese subjects 144 secondary grade 7 9 139 primary school students grade 4 6 subjects administered questionnaire written chinese outlook life scale lau unpublished work children depression inventory cdi kovacs 1985 reynolds adolescent depression scale rads reynolds 1987 outlook life scale new scale consisted three subscales tapped subjects viewed life style parents adults self respectively measure consisted 12 items four items subscale 1 father lives positive life 2 i feel good father 3 mother lives positive life 4 i feel good mother 5 adults world corrupted 6 adults live boring life 7 i feel adults dependable 8 adults lives positive 9 i feel life aimless meaningless 10 worth seeking 11 life full fun joy 12 i live positive life measures pre tested previous studies involving chinese subjects results items outlook life measure factor analysed varimax rotation three distinct factors accounting 53 9 total variance found correspond three views life hypothesized first factor item loadings 0 72 0 79 described subjects viewed parents lives positive good impression labeled view parents vop factor second factor loadings 0 34 0 72 described subjects viewed world adults corrupted unreliable labeled view adults voa factor third factor loadings 0 58 0 77 described subjects viewed life purposeful productive labeled view self vos factor three factors subscales showed acceptable reliability cronbach alpha vop items 1 4 0 81 voa items 5 8 0 54 vos items 9 12 0 63 pattern results obtained items factor analysed separately adolescents children evidence validity scales available study lau 1995 found correlate positively items related behaviours parents adults self measures showed satisfactory reliability cronbach alpha cdi depression 0 85 depressive affect 0 73 oppositional behavior 0 44 personal adjustment 0 52 rads emotionality 0 91 lack personal adjustment 0 71 physiological irritation 0 56 found adolescent group three outlook life views related 295 outlook life negatively depression child group comparable pattern relationships found discussion sum present results showed quite clearly positive adolescents children viewed life style parents adults general happier felt life terms lower depression viable tap adolescents children life outlook scale developed correlations life views emotional state depression lends validity support scales usage literature juvenile suicide delinquency youngsters end killing hurting grim outlook life carnegie council adolescent development 1989 tend paint dark picture world adults hard phenomenon fact young people likely prone moulded fixed conceptions orientations life conceptions hard change long lasting impact development present study first empirical attempt delineate adolescents children outlook life relations psychological adjustment clearly shown table 1 correlations outlook life depression group measures outlook life view parents view adults view self adolescents depression cdi depression 0 42 0 44 0 54 depressive affect 0 34 0 43 0 42 oppositional behaviour 0 23 0 11 0 30 personal adjustment 0 28 0 29 0 40 depression rads emotionality 0 47 0 45 0 55 lack positive experiences 0 27 0 23 0 62 physiological irritation 0 33 0 62 0 37 children depression cdi depression 0 26 0 44 0 70 depressive affect 0 19 0 30 0 59 oppositional behaviour 0 21 0 41 0 46 personal adjustment 0 13 0 36 0 58 depression rads emotionality 0 37 0 34 0 64 lack positive experiences 0 33 0 30 0 54 physiological irritation 0 26 0 26 0 57 rads reynolds adolescent depression scale cdi children depression inventory p 0 05 p 0 01 p 0 001 296 lau w lau study dimensions kept brief future measures incorporate components parents adults self results obtained study clear give credence investigations research role outlook life youngsters aspects life behaviour references 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lau leung k 1992 self concept delinquency relations parents school chinese adolescents perceptions personal control personality individual differences 13 615 622 nucci l p turiel e 1993 god word religious rules relation christian jewish children concepts morality child development 64 1475 1491 reynolds w m 1987 reynolds adolescent depression scale professional manual psychological assessment resources inc white r w 1975 lives progress 3rd edn ny holt rinehart winston, com_apnet_jado_jado_1996_0026, KnowledgeStor, Knowledge-Stor,