Summary / Abstract
Title: Identity formation and religious orientation among high school students from the United States andCanada
Synopsis: Two studies were conducted to examine the relations between Marcia's four identity statuses andAllport and Ross'; four religious orientations. Study 1 was conducted among 38 Mormon and 47 non-Mormon high school studentsliving in a predominantly Mormon Utah community. Study 2 was conducted among 102 Jewish high school students living in Ontario,Canada. It was revealed through the use of
procedures that, in both studies, identity diffusion was associated withthe extrinsic religious orientation. The indiscriminate proreligious scored significantly higher on foreclosure than the intrinsicand nonreligious groups, and the extrinsic scored significantly higher on moratorium than the intrinsic and nonreligious groups inStudy 1. The indiscriminate proreligious scored significantly higher on identity achievement than those classified as extrinsic ornonreligious in Study 2. The indiscriminate proreligious and intrinsic religious orientations were associated with higher scores inthree subscales of ethnic identity for the Jewish adolescents. Potential moderating influences of religious orthodoxy, religiousattendance, grade, and gender were found to not operate between identity and religious orientation.
Title: Identity formation and religious orientation among high school students from the United States andCanada
Synopsis: Two studies were conducted to examine the relations between Marcia's four identity statuses andAllport and Ross'; four religious orientations. Study 1 was conducted among 38 Mormon and 47 non-Mormon high school studentsliving in a predominantly Mormon Utah community. Study 2 was conducted among 102 Jewish high school students living in Ontario,Canada. It was revealed through the use of MANCOVA procedures that, in both studies, identity diffusion was associated withthe extrinsic religious orientation. The indiscriminate proreligious scored significantly higher on foreclosure than the intrinsicand nonreligious groups, and the extrinsic scored significantly higher on moratorium than the intrinsic and nonreligious groups inStudy 1. The indiscriminate proreligious scored significantly higher on identity achievement than those classified as extrinsic ornonreligious in Study 2. The indiscriminate proreligious and intrinsic religious orientations were associated with higher scores inthree subscales of ethnic identity for the Jewish adolescents. Potential moderating influences of religious orthodoxy, religiousattendance, grade, and gender were found to not operate between identity and religious orientation.
Related links for: Identity formation and religious orientation among high school students from the United States andCanada
Additional keywords for: Identity formation and religious orientation among high school students from the United States andCanada
journal adolescence 1996 19 247 261 identity formation religious orientation high school students united states canada carol markstrom adams melanie smith two studies conducted examine relations marcia four identity statuses allport ross four religious orientations study 1 conducted 38 mormon 47 non mormon high school students living predominantly mormon utah community study 2 conducted 102 jewish high school students living ontario canada revealed mancova procedures studies identity diffusion associated extrinsic religious orientation indiscriminate proreligious scored significantly higher foreclosure intrinsic nonreligious groups extrinsic scored significantly higher moratorium intrinsic nonreligious groups study 1 indiscriminate proreligious scored significantly higher identity achievement classified extrinsic nonreligious study 2 indiscriminate proreligious intrinsic religious orientations associated higher scores three subscales ethnic identity jewish adolescents potential moderating influences religious orthodoxy religious attendance grade gender found operate identity religious orientation 1996 association professionals services adolescents introduction erikson 1968 work identity development adolescence received great deal attention research literature erikson 1968 described optimal sense identity sense psychosocial feeling home body sense knowing going p 165 marcia 1966 operationalization erikson work resulted identification four identity statuses derived dimensions exploration commitment achieved individuals adequately explored committed identity options moratorium characterized present state identity exploration commitment foreclosed individuals prematurely committed identity outcomes absence exploration diffused individuals uncommitted identity actively exploring identity options understanding nature statuses expanded wealth research identity formation related components personality absence studies relations identity constructs religiosity omission significant erikson 1965 identified religion salient component ideological identity erikson 1964 1965 stated religion enhancing experience youths provides answers complex issues existence religion link individual history societal history promoting feelings reprint requests correspondence addressed c markstrom adams phd division family resources west virginia university morgantown wv 26506 6124 u 0140 1971 96 03024715 18 00 0 1996 association professionals services adolescents 248 c markstrom adams m smith importance purpose life rites rituals faith affirmative dogma religion foster feelings belongingness erikson 1964 1965 eriksonian perspective justification study religiosity relation identity warranted specifically propose allport ross 1967 construct religious orientation bear strong association identity religious orientation centered people motivations religion opposed degree religiosity allport ross 1967 hood 1970 watson et al 1990 intrinsic orientation religion characterized adopted internalized creed reflected efforts live principles allport ross 1967 contrast extrinsicallyoriented individual self serving instrumental utilitarian purposes reflected securing interests needs allport ross 1967 essence extrinsic uses religion selfish ambitions intrinsic directed internalized creeds writers offered interpretations religious orientations instance hood 1971 linked institutional aspects religion extrinsic orientation personal experiential aspects religion intrinsic orientation donahue 1985 term meaning endowing framework describe intrinsic orientation stated extrinsic religiosity comfort social convention p 400 kirkpatrick hood 1990 argued notion religious orientation intrinsic extrinsic dimensions conceptually empirically poorly delineated concluded review literature intrinsic religiosity essentially religious commitment extrinsic dimension best characterized utilitarian selfish motivation kirkpatrick hood 1990 initially intrinsic extrinsic orientations conceived motivations operated unipolar dimension allport ross 1967 noted two scales uncorrelated argued unipolar framework replaced twodimensional conceptualization observed manner four fold typology four religious orientations emerged intrinsic high intrinsic low extrinsic b extrinsic high intrinsic low intrinsic c indiscriminate proreligious high intrinsic high extrinsic d nonreligious antireligious low intrinsic low extrinsic researchers varied opinions assessments religious orientation construct occur two dimensions four fold typology adopted e g kirkpatrick hood 1990 critical latter kirkpatrick 1989 asserted extrinsic scale unified consists two separate social personal dimensions contrast watson et al 1990 argued available evidence supports continued four fold typology hood 1978 reported indiscriminately proreligious antireligious nonreligious categories conceptually empirically useful four fold typology adopted present investigations order provide specific information religious orientation conceptual level internalized search necessary optimal identity formation appears strikingly internally oriented religious motivation i e intrinsic proposed overlapping internal processes operate development intrinsic orientation advanced identity formation conjecture contrary kirkpatrick hood 1990 statement intrinsic dimension essentially religious commitment kirkpatrick hood correct intrinsic orientation related immature mature forms identity commitment associated foreclosure achievement respectively argue 249 identity religious orientation foreclosed achieved individuals adopt religious creeds internalization creeds differentiates two statuses fact allport ross 1967 stated intrinsically motivated person lives religion extent internalizes follows personally adopted religious prescriptions p 434 suggests internally embedded religiosity congruent identity achievement related shallow superficial status foreclosure individuals nonreligious orientation related advanced identity development nonreligious person engaged engaging careful examination topic religiosity individual carefully considered religion made conscious decision concerning nonreligious outcome engaged processes exploration commitment identity achievement nonreligious person undergoing examination religion likely identity moratorium i e currently exploring religion absence commitment contrast intrinsic nonreligious orientations extrinsic individual motivated religion utilitarian instrumental values allport ross 1967 donahue 1985 stated extrinsic religiosity self serving instrumental approach shaped suit oneself p 400 absence inwardfocused spirituality religious motivations appear stem superficial needs wants status sociability allport ross 1967 extrinsic religious orientation bears strong resemblance mature identity status diffusion internal processes minimized ample evidence see adams et al 1994 illustrates hedonistic self oriented nature diffusion consistent self serving nature extrinsic orientation make predictions identity statuses religious orientations indiscriminately proreligious orientation necessary examine empirical literature shortcoming literature limited evidence explores explicit linkages constructs exception study embedded social identity theory identity commitment social roles correlated intrinsic religious orientation jackson 1981 limited prior research evident personality constructs studied relation eriksonian conceptions identity studied respect religious orientation particular personality characteristics associated rigidity narrowness thinking pertinent discussion indiscriminate proreligious extrinsic orientations associated prejudice e g allport ross 1967 herek 1987 morris et al 1989 dogmatism thompson 1974 thompson 1974 reported intrinsics nonreligious scored lowest dogmatism see donahue 1985 meta analysis full discussion findings studies end 1982 respect identity intolerance subcomponent dogmatism found significantly lower adolescents moratorium contrast diffused foreclosed counterparts cote levine 1983 moratorium related nonreligious intrinsic orientations prejudice dogmaticism suggest closed mindedness reflected conformity identity foreclosed college students shown conforming authoritarian values marcia 1966 rigid closed thinking berzonsky sullivan 1992 openness thinking associated diffuse 250 c markstrom adams m smith avoidant personality style greater openness thinking related informationoriented identity style moratorium achievement statuses berzonsky sullivan 1992 series experimental self report peer rating strategies college students adams et al 1985 reported diffused foreclosed men rated higher conformity peers female counterparts additionally diffused men women likely conform peer pressure identity statuses locus control relevant discussion internal locus control suggestive open pattern thinking external locus control reflects limited constrained thinking surprising intrinsic religious orientation associated internal locus control kahoe 1974 donahue 1985 extrinsic orientation external locus control kahoe 1974 intrinsics scoring high internal locus control shown score high identity formation adams shea 1979 abraham 1983 bennion unpublished master thesis review pertinent empirical reports confirmatory speculation mature low exploratory ideological identity statuses i e diffusion foreclosure extrinsic indiscriminately proreligious orientations share tendencies indicative rigid closed thinking patterns contrast intrinsic nonreligious orientations related advanced ideological identity statuses i e moratorium achievement shared characteristics greater openness internality thinking suggestive greater tendency exploration donahue 1985 noted intrinsic nonreligious tend score manner respect nonreligious variables ideological identity conceived predominantly nonreligious variable domains centers religious concerns donahue conclusions provide support proposed relations advanced identity statuses intrinsic nonreligious orientations two studies conducted samples quite distinct study 1 comprised mormon non mormon high school students living predominantly mormon community united states study 2 conducted jewish high school students canada respect ideological identity predicted adolescents classified extrinsic indiscriminate proreligious score higher diffusion foreclosure classified intrinsic nonreligious b adolescents classified intrinsic nonreligious score higher moratorium achievement classified extrinsic indiscriminate proreligious study 2 relations four religious orientations ethnic identity considered ethnic identity salience ethnicity jewish identity linzer 1984 vigod 1984 jewish people ethnicity religion intertwined pervade areas life religiosity ethnicity intertwined jewish people donahue 1985 concluded intrinsics indiscriminates score manner respect religious variables predicted intrinsic indiscriminately proreligious orientations associated higher scores ethnic identity exploratory purpose investigation consideration variables moderate identity religious orientation examination moderating variables inclusion culturally religiously distinct samples report consistent recommendation chau et al 1990 future studies religious orientation data diverse samples chau et al 1990 advised 251 identity religious orientation examination religious commitment religious involvement respect religious orientation identity literature markstrom adams et al 1994 found frequent religious attendance related identity foreclosure achievement reports conceived religious attendance moderate relations identity religious orientation gender grade differences considered moderating roles variables shown bear varying relations identity statuses e g josselson 1987 adams et al 1989 religious orientations e g donahue 1985 watson et al 1990 donahue 1985 reported meta analysis religious orthodoxy differing relations intrinsic extrinsic scales jewish sample study 2 religious orthodoxy considered moderating role formal hypotheses examination moderating variables considered exploratory components investigations study 1 methods sample study 1 conducted 38 mormon 47 non mormon high school students grades 9 12 living predominantly mormon utah community attending high school mean age mormon participants 16 years mean age non mormon participants 15 9 years 16 males 22 females mormon sample 18 males 29 females non mormon sample non mormon participants affiliated episcopal lutheran presbyterian roman catholic southern baptist religions eighty nine cent mormons 79 non mormons reported attending religious services week study occurred community 32 762 population larger geographical region 70 183 bureau census 1990 community largely white middle class characteristics reflected sample procedures mormon non mormon samples selected assistance leaders representative religious organizations letters described study mailed potential participants parents follow phone calls made schedule testing appointments adolescents wanted participate study parental permission testing sessions involved approximately hour half private session adolescent trained interviewer adolescent home instrumentation participants completed self report measures extended objective measure egoidentity status eomeis adams et al 1989 religious orientation scale allport ross 1967 eomeis assessment marcia four identity statuses i e achievement moratorium foreclosure diffusion study 32 selfreport items reflective ideological domains identity occupation politics religion philosophical life style utilized 252 c markstrom adams m smith two recommended manners scoring eomeis first technique desirable large sample sizes allows delineation categorical identity status classification second scoring technique yields four continuous subscale scores four identity statuses ideological identity latter technique present study limited sample size provide depth information four subscales four religious orientations evidence strong reliability validity measure reported adams et al 1989 detailed scoring protocol present study internal consistency reliability reflected cronbach alphas acceptable good range 0 58 0 83 subscales second instrument completed sample allport ross 1967 widely religious orientation scale measure consists 20 intrinsically extrinsically worded items scored four point likert scale utilizing median splits intrinsic extrinsic scales four religious orientations derived indiscriminately proreligious intrinsic extrinsic nonreligious details measure psychometric properties found donahue 1985 robinson shaver 1973 present study cronbach alphas found acceptable values 0 75 intrinsic scale 0 63 extrinsic scale results intrinsic extrinsic scales negatively correlated nonsignificant level r 0 12 supported usage two distinct dimensions four religious orientation categories determined procedure advocated hood 1970 median splits intrinsic extrinsic dimensions range scores intrinsic dimension 12 41 median 31 extrinsic dimension range 14 46 median 31 21 respondents classified indiscriminately proreligious 23 intrinsic 25 extrinsic 16 nonreligious significant correlations existed four identity subscales determined multi variate strategy analysis data religious orientation independent classifying variable eomeis identity subscales reflected continuous scores served dependent variables preliminary step data analysis exploratory analyses conducted examine variables potentially function moderating roles identity religious orientation four two manova tests performed explore potential interactions religious orientation four levels independent variable second independent variable relation identity statuses study 1 two manova procedures religious orientation mormon non mormon status b religious attendance weekly week c grade 9th 10th 11th 12th d gender due limited sample size three manova procedures possible hotelling lawley traces two interactions significant lack significance statistic confidence placed univariate statistics significant two interaction univariate tests interaction religious orientation religious attendance ideological diffusion determined four moderators 253 identity religious orientation controlled primary analysis significant correlations existed proposed moderator variables dependent variables eomeis subscales mancova performed four religious orientations independent variable four ideological identity subscales hotelling lawley trace significant f 12 218 5 0 p 0 0001 deemed meaningful examine univariates see table 1 significant findings emerged ideological diffusion ideological foreclosure ideological moratorium squares mean comparisons utilizing t tests adjusted means shown table 1 standard errors unadjusted means unadjusted means merely comparison purposes significant mean comparisons occurred identity subscales discussion findings center adjusted mean differences influence moderators controlled discussion support first prediction higher scores identity diffusion foreclosure related extrinsic indiscriminate proreligious orientations particular extrinsics scored significantly higher diffusion orientations intrinsics scored significantly lower orientations diffusion indiscriminates extrinsics scored significantly higher foreclosure intrinsics indiscriminates scored significantly higher nonreligious foreclosure consider diffusion risk healthy identity statuses diffusion associated reported feelings hopelessness selles unpublished master thesis substance jones 1992 degrees significantly greater identity statuses adams et al 1994 summarized compelling evidence studies illustrated poor personal social adjustment diffused strong association extrinsic orientation diffusion indicative poor adjustment psychological functioning orientation foreclosed individuals necessarily exhibit extreme behavioral table 1 study 1 adjusted unadjusted means standard errors parentheses significance ideological identity four religious orientations identity subscales religious orientation f value df indiscriminate intrinsic extrinsic nonreligious n 21 n 23 n 25 n 16 ideological adj 23 3 b 1 2 17 6 c 1 1 27 7 1 2 22 2 b 1 3 12 60 3 77 diffusion unadj 23 4 17 3 28 0 22 1 ideological adj 22 3 1 1 17 0 c 1 0 21 8 ab 1 1 19 1 bc 1 2 6 15 3 77 foreclosure unadj 25 1 17 7 19 6 18 6 ideological adj 27 1 ab 1 3 25 0 b 1 1 29 7 1 2 25 9 b 1 3 4 63 3 77 moratorium unadj 26 7 25 0 30 1 25 9 ideological adj 31 9 ab 1 2 34 4 1 1 32 9 ab 1 2 30 4 b 1 3 1 97 3 77 achievement unadj 33 1 34 7 31 8 30 3 p 0 05 p 0 001 means sharing letters significantly different p 0 05 squares ttest comparisons 254 c markstrom adams m smith adjustment problems diffused attributed presence commitment lives concluded extrinsics fare poorly psychological adjustment indiscriminate proreligious diffused foreclosed individuals present constrained limited psychological outlooks consistent linkage dogmatism prejudice extrinsic indiscriminately proreligious orientations contrary prediction classified intrinsic nonreligious score highest moratorium extrinsics scored significantly higher intrinsics nonreligious moratorium moratorium considered mature status diffusion foreclosure immature status respect achievement extrinsics higher scores diffusion moratorium reflected association lack commitment two statuses perplexing findings study related nonreligious prediction score higher moratorium achievement supported scored significantly lower intrinsics ideological achievement significantly higher intrinsics ideological diffusion scored significantly lower extrinsics diffusion significantly lower indiscriminates foreclosure appears parallels intrinsic nonreligious orientations present sample studies finding explained fact sample comprised religiously affiliated adolescents nonreligious members religious organizations motivations religion strongly intrinsic extrinsic attributable parental influence future studies truly nonreligiously affiliated adolescents produce different findings argued nonreligious orientation comprised individuals varying motives nonreligious stance instance nonreligious genuinely diffused reflect disinterest religious identity concerns nonreligious foreclosed committed nonreligious view exploration topic nonreligious attain orientation careful examination religious issues moratorium achievement statuses short lack apparent pattern relations identity nonreligious reflect varying degrees identity formation group prediction intrinsics score higher advanced identity statuses moratorium achievement received mixed support intrinsics scored lowest previously noted significantly lower extrinsics moratorium religious orientation significant achievement squares t tests comparisons significant intrinsics score significantly higher nonreligious achievement findings considered tentative lack significance f test achievement concluded intrinsics lower risk immature psychosocial development scored significantly lower orientations diffusion scored significantly lower indiscriminates extrinsics foreclosure scored highest significantly higher nonreligious achievement significant differences observed three four identity subscales evident religious orientations scored highest achievement four religious orientations scored highest identity achievement comparison identity subscales particular contrasts achievement scores scores diffusion foreclosure revealing discrepancies observations 255 identity religious orientation bring perspective results adolescents showed greater propensity identity achievement mature identity statuses moderating variables grade gender mormon non mormon status religious attendance interact religious orientation respect identity findings relation religious attendance muted fact sample attended religious services weekly basis moderating variables examined second study different sample study 1 study 2 methods sample subjects study 2 102 jewish middle class high school students grades 9 12 living urban areas ontario canada statistics canada 1993a b c subjects represented religious affiliations judaism 19 orthodox 63 conservative 20 reform 40 males 62 females ranged age 14 18 years average age 15 7 years thirty two cent sample reported attending religious services weekly 33 monthly 37 reported attending religious services important holidays procedures names addresses potential participants study supplied school personnel jewish day school religious leaders synagogues potential participants initially sent letter described nature study families contacted telephone testing arrangements made willing participate parental permission trained research assistants met individually adolescent participants homes approximately 2 3 h sessions participants interviewed concerning religious experiences completed measures target present investigation instrumentation respondents study 2 completed eomeis religious orientation scale described study 1 study 2 cronbach alphas acceptable good range 0 64 0 81 ideological identity subscales religious orientation scale cronbach alphas 0 79 intrinsic scale 0 51 extrinsic scale latter score reflective potential reliability problem extrinsic scale addressed discussion findings subjects study 2 completed phinney 1992 multigroup ethnic identity measure meim meim consists 21 items four point likert scale respondent indicates magnitude agreement phinney 1992 subscale scores obtained ethnic affirmation belonging ethnic behaviors ethnic identity achievement cronbach alphas subscales found acceptable 0 60 high school college samples phinney 1992 sample study 2 cronbach alphas meim 0 86 ethnic affirmation belonging 0 68 ethnic identity achievement 0 61 ethnic behaviors practices 256 c markstrom adams m smith results study 1 nonsignificant r 0 07 correlation found intrinsic extrinsic scales establishing independence two dimensions four categories religious orientation determined median splits intrinsic extrinsic dimensions range intrinsic scores 11 40 median 25 5 extrinsic scores ranged 16 45 median 30 twenty three classified indiscriminately proreligious 28 intrinsic 34 extrinsic 17 nonreligious arbitrary quality cut offs evident different medians samples study 1 study 2 subject classified orientation sample different orientation criteria different sample correlations performed ideological identity subscales eomeis ethnic identity subscales meim significant correlations observed subscales measure determined conduct multi variate procedures study 2 study 1 exploratory examination data occurred study 2 determine moderating effects series variables ideological identity four two manova procedures performed religious orientation religious orthodoxy orthodox conservative reform b religious attendance weekly monthly important holidays c grade 9th 10th 11th 12th d gender subscales eomeis dependent variables due limited sample size threeway manova procedures performed hotelling lawley traces significant two interactions consideration significant two interaction warranted surprising significant univariate test religious orientation grade ideological achievement significant correlations proposed moderating variables dependent variables religious orthodoxy religious attendance grade gender retained covariates primary analysis mancova performed four categories religious orientation independent variable four ideological identity subscales eomeis dependent variables hotelling lawley trace significant f 12 269 2 38 p 0 006 findings univariate tests examined ideological diffusion ideological achievement significant see table 2 mean comparison adjusted means utilizing squares t test shown table 2 exploratory analyses meim consisted four two mancova procedures four religious orientations series variables previously described hotelling lawley trace statistics significant two interactions significant two interactions univariate tests moderating effects secondary variables meaningful relations subscales meim four religious orientations served control variables primary analysis significant correlations orthodoxy religious attendance gender grade dependent variables subscales meim served dependent variables mancova independent variable four categories religious orientation previously defined hotelling lawley trace significant f 9 272 4 04 p 0 0001 257 identity religious orientation univariate tests significant see table 3 squares mean comparisons utilizing ttests conducted adjusted means see table 3 discussion study 1 extrinsics indiscriminates scored significantly higher diffusion intrinsics finding supports initial predictions nonreligious scored significantly higher intrinsics diffusion clearly intrinsic orientation risk unhealthy identity formation four religious orientations score significantly different identity foreclosure supporting initial prediction prediction intrinsics nonreligious score highest identity moratorium achievement supported moratorium significant table 2 study 2 adjusted unadjusted means standard errors parentheses significance ideological identity four religious orientations identity subscales religious orientation f value df indiscriminate intrinsic extrinsic nonreligious n 23 n 28 n 34 n 17 ideological adj 23 0 1 2 20 0 b 1 1 25 5 1 0 23 3 1 4 5 27 3 94 diffusion unadj 22 8 19 3 26 1 23 2 ideological adj 21 3 1 2 20 2 1 1 21 4 1 0 19 2 1 5 0 62 3 94 foreclosure unadj 22 0 20 5 21 5 17 7 ideological adj 27 7 1 3 26 6 1 2 27 2 1 1 28 1 1 6 0 25 3 94 moratorium unadj 27 8 26 6 27 4 27 7 ideological adj 34 2 1 3 31 6 ab 1 1 29 7 b 1 0 29 1 b 1 5 2 98 3 94 achievement unadj 34 1 31 8 29 4 30 0 p 0 05 p 0 01 means sharing letters significantly different p 0 05 squares ttest comparisons table 3 study 2 adjusted unadjusted means standard errors parentheses significance ethnic identity four categories religious orientation identity subscales religious orientation f value df indiscrimate intrinsic extrinsic nonreligious n 23 n 28 n 34 n 17 ethnic affirmation adj 3 9 0 10 3 9 0 10 3 5 b 0 08 3 3 b 0 12 7 96 3 94 belonging unadj 3 9 4 0 3 4 3 2 ethnic identity adj 3 6 0 10 3 4 0 09 3 1 b 0 08 3 0 b 0 12 5 53 3 94 achievement unadj 3 6 3 5 3 1 3 0 ethnic behaviors adj 3 6 ac 0 13 3 7 0 11 3 3 bc 0 10 3 2 b 0 15 3 95 3 94 practice unadj 3 7 3 8 3 2 2 9 p 0 05 p 0 01 p 0 001 means sharing letters significantly different p 0 05 squares ttest comparisons 258 c markstrom adams m smith analyses identity achievement significant indiscriminates scored significantly higher extrinsics nonreligious apparently jewish sample combination intrinsic extrinsic traits conducive achievement identity study 2 two mature statuses i e diffusion achievement salient respect religious orientations difficult fully interpret findings cronbach alpha extrinsic scale lower desirable problems extrinsic scale observed particular kirkpatrick 1989 found extrinsic scale yield two dimensions factor analysis unfortunately limited sample size present study precluded factor analysis religious orientation scale continued assessments reliability extrinsic scale occur three ethnic identity subscales related intrinsic indiscriminate proreligious orientations jewish sample intrinsic component extrinsic component indiscriminate proreligious orientation provided greatest contribution higher ethnic identity findings supported prediction study consistent donahue 1985 observation indiscriminates intrinsics score indistinguishable manner respect religious variables ethnicity highly meaningful component jewish religiosity supports conclusion nonreligious scored significantly lower indiscriminates intrinsics three ethnic identity variables apparently jewish adolescents scoring low extrinsic intrinsic religious dimensions attuned ethnicity findings support notion ethnicity religion intertwined jewish tradition findings interesting necessary temper lower cronbach alphas extrinsic scale study 2 study 1 variables grade gender religious orthodoxy religious attendance significant analyses interact religious orientation respect identity status dependent variables consistent study 1 subjects classified four religious orientations scored highest achievement comparison scores identity subscales diffusion foreclosure conclusions strongest parallel two studies association extrinsic orientation ideological diffusion low diffusion scores intrinsics finding statistically significant practical significance argued earlier diffusion healthy identity statuses association extrinsic orientation leads conclusion extrinsics fare poorest respect psychosocial development instrumental utilitarian extrinsic motivation religion related state identity formation immature underdeveloped potentially maladaptive contrast intrinsic individuals appeared risk poor psychosocial health adjustment studies scored significantly lower orientations ideological diffusion study 1 scored significantly lower indiscriminates extrinsics foreclosure study 1 scored highest 259 identity religious orientation ideological achievement significantly higher nonreligious short evidence association advanced identity formation intrinsic religiosity stronger conclusion made intrinsics psychosocially immature prediction identity moratorium achievement associated nonreligious orientation supported study 1 moratorium closely associated extrinsic orientation samples studies nonreligious exhibit extreme high low scores identity subscales findings related nonreligious orientation influenced high degree religious participation subjects studies noted earlier motives nonreligious stem variety sources replication present studies occur nonreligiously affiliated nonreligiously involved adolescents ethnic identity highly relevant study 2 shown significance three categories ethnic identity intrinsic indiscriminately proreligious orientations advanced ethnic ideological identity achievement clearly jewish subjects indiscriminate orientation counterproductive advanced levels forms identity noteworthy observe different medians intrinsic extrinsic scales study 1 study 2 study 1 medians 31 scales intrinsic median 25 5 extrinsic 30 study 2 widest discrepancy two studies intrinsic scale lower intrinsic median jewish adolescents study 2 lead conclusion extrinsic dimension meaningful group occurrence partially explains association indiscriminate orientation advanced levels identity study 2 reliability problem extrinsic scale study 2 temper findings respect jewish sample reliability problematic study 1 mormon non mormon sample extrinsic scale continue examined carefully future studies potential moderating variables vary findings identity religious orientation evidence suggest relations identity religious orientation religion fairly robust particular findings congruent studies offer best insight relations identity statuses religious orientations references abraham k g 1983 relation identity status locus control rural high school students journal early adolescence 3 257 264 adams g r bennion l huh k 1989 objective measure ego identity status reference manual logan utah utah state university adams g r gullota t p markstrom adams c 1994 adolescent life experiences 3rd edn pacific grove ca brooks cole adams g r ryan j h hoffman j j dobson w r nielsen e c 1985 ego identity status conformity behavior personality late adolescence journal personality social psychology 47 1091 1104 adams g r shea j 1979 relationship identity status locus control ego development journal youth adolescence 8 81 89 260 c markstrom adams m smith allport g w ross j m 1967 personal religious orientation prejudice journal personality social psychology 5 432 443 berzonsky m d sullivan c 1992 social cognitive aspects identity style need cognition experiential openness introspection journal adolescent research 7 140 155 bureau census 1990 1990 census population summary population housing characteristics washington dc u government printing office chau l l johnson r c bowers j k darvill t j danko g p 1990 intrinsic extrinsic religiosity related conscience adjustment altruism personality individual differences 11 397 400 cote j e levine c 1983 marcia erikson relationship ego identity status neuroticism dogmatism purpose life journal youth adolescence 12 43 53 donahue m j 1985 intrinsic extrinsic religiousness review meta analysis journal personality social psychology 48 400 419 erikson e h 1964 insight responsibility new york w w norton erikson e h 1965 youth fidelity diversity challenge youth erikson e h ed garden city ny anchor book erikson e h 1968 identity youth crisis new york w w norton herek g m 1987 religious orientation prejudice comparison racial sexual attitudes personality social psychology bulletin 13 34 44 hood r w 1970 religious orientation report religious experience journal scientific study religion 9 285 291 hood r w 1971 comparison allport feagin scoring procedures intrinsic extrinsic religious orientation journal scientific study religion 10 370 374 hood r w 1978 usefulness indiscriminately pro anti categories religious orientation journal scientific study religion 17 419 431 jackson e 1981 measurement commitment role identities journal personality social psychology 40 138 146 jones r m 1992 ego identity adolescent problem behavior adolescent identity formation adams g r gullotta t p montemayor r eds newbury park ca sage josselson r 1987 finding pathways identity development women san francisco josseybass kahoe r d 1974 personality achievement correlates intrinsic extrinsic religious orientations journal personality social psychology 8 812 818 kirkpatrick l 1989 psychometric analysis allport ross feagin measures intrinsic extrinsic religious orientation research social scientific study religion vol 1 moberg d o lynn m l eds greenwich ct jai press kirkpatrick l hood r w 1990 intrinsic extrinsic religious orientation boon bane contemporary psychology religion journal scientific study religion 29 442 462 linzer n 1984 jewish family ny human sciences press marcia j 1966 development validation ego identity status journal personality social psychology 3 551 558 markstrom adams c hofstra g dougher k 1994 ego virtue fidelity case study religion identity formation adolescence journal youth adolescence 23 453 469 morris r j hood r w watson p j 1989 second look religious orientation social desirability prejudice bulletin psychonomic society 27 81 84 phinney j 1992 multigroup ethnic identity measure journal adolescent research 7 156 176 robinson j p shaver p r 1973 measures social psychological attitudes arbor mi institute social research statistics canada 1993a profile census tracts toronto ottawa minister supply services statistics canada 1993b profile census tracts hamilton ottawa minister supply services statistics canada 1993c profile census tracts brantford guelph kitchener st catherines niagara ottawa minister supply services 261 identity religious orientation thompson d 1974 open mindedness indiscrimination antireligious orientation journal scientific study religion 13 471 477 vigod b l 1984 jews canada saint john nb canadian historical assn watson p j morris r j hood r w 1990 extrinsic scale factors correlations construction religious orientation types journal psychology christianity 9 35 46, com_apnet_jado_jado_1996_0023, KnowledgeStor, Knowledge-Stor,