Summary / Abstract

Title: Young people and mentoring—towards a typology?

Synopsis: This study explores young people's perceptions of mentoring relationships and proposes a typologyof mentoring forms. A sample of 150 adolescents was interviewed both in groups ( n =12 groups of up to 13 youngpeople) and individually ( n =30 individuals recruited from the group interviews). Results suggested that a range offorms of mentoring were perceived as valuable by different groups of young people and from these a typology of mentoring forms isdevised. mentoring, adolescents, interviews, mentor, adults, Hendry, typology, Philip, youth, friends, support, perceptions, group members, settings, professionals, experiences, peer group, classic mentoring, social networks, friendship, transitions, interpretation, understanding, youth workers, Adolescents Introduction, Kate Philip, Keynes Open University, youth work, Open University Press, perspectives,

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journal adolescence 1996 19 189 201 young people mentoring typology kate philip leo b hendry study explores young people perceptions mentoring relationships proposes typology mentoring forms sample 150 adolescents interviewed groups n 12 groups 13 young people individually n 30 individuals recruited group interviews results suggested range forms mentoring perceived valuable different groups young people typology mentoring forms devised 1996 association professionals services adolescents introduction paper explore young people perceptions relationships mentors build typology based views development previous research carried hendry et al 1992 examined young people perceptions significant lives briefly findings earlier study adolescents perceived family members peers significant individuals relate range adults youth work professionals figured importantly lives mentoring increasingly popular form intervention youth disadvantaged youth u u k hamilton darling 1989 galbo et al 1990 hamilton 1991 freedman 1993 gambone 1993 mentoring programmes attempt replicate natural informal mentoring sensitively matching individual adult mentor young person flaxman et al 1988 little understanding mentoring process works young person perspective particular scant attention paid mentoring impinges different people move adulthood traditionally commonly mentoring conceptualised relationship older experienced adult younger mentee flaxman et al 1988 mentoring process seen means enhancing transition adolescence adulthood provision support challenge acceptable parties hamilton darling 1989 theoretical underpinnings model lie field developmental psychology works rutter 1987 werner 1990 bronfenbrenner 1986 garbarino 1993 galbo et al 1990 hamilton darling 1989 influential outlining aspects mentoring reprint requests correspondence addressed k philip department education university aberdeen king college aberdeen ab9 2ub u k paper based findings research project funded johann jacobs foundation zurich switzerland views ideas expressed solely responsibility authors 0140 1971 96 03018913 18 00 0 1996 association professionals services adolescents 190 k philip l b hendry aforementioned work stems field developmental psychology addition number disciplines useful insights drawn sociological studies gender friendship mathews 1986 o connor 1992 social support phoenix 1991 social networks bowling 1991 bo 1989 noted lack empirical study social worlds networks adolescents criticised reluctance researchers engage adolescents determination saliences neglect interconnections adolescents identification significant adults larger social environment social bonds tied p 143 similarly rhodes 1994 claimed understanding mentoring atrisk youth rests base observational data empirical studies p 188 went argue careful examination informal formalised contexts mentoring youth research criticised focusing exclusively developing individual scant attention social structural contexts young people make transition adulthood griffin 1993 specifically lack concern impact social economic policies young people highlighted jones wallace 1992 chisolm du bois raymond 1993 transitions appear remain highly gendered griffin 1993 coles 1995 hendry et al 1995 argued psychosocial relational issues significantly different young men young women content vary transitions childhood adolescence adulthood increasingly complex assumptions mentoring presence adult mentor mentoring relationship valuable process rhodes 1994 previous research mentoring tended based retrospective accounts mentoring relationships flaxman et al 1988 rhodes 1994 important retrospective accounts vital extend descriptions contemporary views mentoring relationships order gain understanding young person perspective rhodes 1994 insight mentoring occurs current social relationships contexts provide valuable data relationships adults young people develop contexts perceived useful problems encountered parties accounts young people experiences expectations understandings processes young person perspective provide unique data potential disadvantages mentoring relationships fit adolescents existing social networks current study explores young people perceive mentoring interpret social relationships make transition adulthood notion single form mentoring contested changing social political economic climate variety forms turn support diversity social strategies young people study working definition mentoring broadened traditional definition processes young people feel supported challenged individuals groups making transitions adulthood specifically paper explore questions i ways mentoring relationships significant different groups young people mentoring perceived different groups ii useful classic model mentoring understanding range young people relationships adolescent 191 young people mentoring years iii alternative models mentoring varied types assist process mentoring transition adulthood young people method sample order answer questions posed sample selected provide broad cross section youth population area scotland purposive sample 150 adolescents aged 13 18 years age derived median age 16 years half sample composed young women participants volunteered take study preliminary meetings researchers aims methods project outlined recruitment carried voluntary statutory organisations self help groups youth agencies urban suburban rural areas variety housing provision sample comprised clubbable adolescents young people remain relatively detached organised youth provision pilot studies order make decisions appropriate access young people views pilot studies carried variety approaches initially questionnaire survey depth interviews young people self identified mentors clear small scale pilots qualitative methods group individual interviews necessary go mere description explore context participants social relationships procedure watts ebbutt 1987 kitzinger 1994 focused group interview approach chosen means gaining insight collective experiences types young people twelve interviews conducted followed series individual interviews n 30 13 young people participated group interviews sample individual interviews selected groups study aimed map range young people experiences gauge frequency particular types experience terms enrich description quantify group interviews relatively underdeveloped social sciences established market research kitzinger 1994 study provided useful method observing analysing interactions young people informal settings additionally board game 1 limitations group methods addressed danger individuals dominating discussion game drew members discussion provided means distancing individuals personally sensitive issues exploring game variety dilemmas faced imaginary adolescents focus stimulated interaction participants observed analysed researchers 1 game devised two researchers kate philip ruth campbell information available authors 192 k philip l b hendry framework adopted enabled group highlight situations help sought adults appropriate existing forms support perceived individuals threw dice selected card read proposed strategy discussed group probing facilitator appropriate cards mundane humorous serious issues designed encourage group build scenarios explore localised recent experiences small number cards specific problem page format group encouraged provide solutions query provided highly contextualised form data asked help asked number strategies dealing different problems individual depth interviews subsequently held subsample group explore themes issues raised group issues raised group interviews teased personalised setting questions arising group discussions discrepancies group individual perceptions addition sensitive aspects tackled wider group addressed two interview approaches helped build textured accounts young people interpret understand psychosocial development role mentoring specific point lives group individual interviews number related themes extracted attempt build typology mentoring young person perspective group interviews undertaken two researchers taped permission participants researcher undertook facilitate session adopted observer role notes appropriate full transcripts made interviews researcher carried initial analysis identifying emerging themes establishing tentative categories transcripts made available comment analysis members research team second researcher analysed transcript blind exchanged notes first researcher second stage analysis revised analyses basis comparison discussion third member team present interview addition small sample tapes examined ensure consistency definitions categories adopted means triangulating data process adopted individual interviews full transcripts forming basis analysis validation members research team sample examined depth compared group interviews perceived mentoring forms interviews five mentoring styles identified described follows 1 classic mentoring relationship adult young person older experienced mentor provides support advice challenge support offered instance working shared interest hobby adult provides role model gives recognition mentee special person 2 individual team mentoring group looks individual small number individuals support advice challenge demonstrated specialised youth work settings girls groups mentioned young people reference organised youth provision mentor described respect understanding 193 young people mentoring peer group mentor necessarily older group members recognised valid previous experience seen reliable relevant 3 friend friend mentoring provides safety net young people mistrustful adults instances provides testing ground disclosure sensitive information setting values beliefs rehearsed safely prior form action taken type mentoring relationship cited pairings young women best friends involved wider overlapping friendships 4 peer group mentoring ordinary friendship group takes mentoring role specific times mentoring occurs group age friends acquaintances interested common issue drug misuse takes place specific social context peer group acts arbiter resource terms appropriate strategies adopt social settings nightclubs raves stages relationships potential boyfriends girlfriends 5 long term relationship mentoring risk taking adults style classic mentoring respects differs relationship young person mentor history rebellion challenging authority perceived young person resisting adult definitions social world young adults known early childhood five forms explored order propose typology mentoring relationships processes young person perspective see table 1 findings discussion mentoring typology classic mentoring description classic mentoring process older experienced adult provides support advice challenge young person described young men present study small number young women described relationship subsidiary form mentoring relationship illustrations vignette member intermediate treatment group young people risk scenario described place difficult period d adolescence mentoring stealth working interest machines i care time interested go karts i started doing eventually came says give hand know equal basis like know i helping helping didn t i thought good laugh seeing back happening scenario h described care assistant important source support process coming lesbian interviewer saying first time gay club gone back 194 k philip l b hendry home supportive h i good greet cry gave cuddle interviewer keep touch h i don t know re close meet first night i went home i nervous shift i think bond i mean tucked bed first night made feel ease i ll grateful interpretation examples outlined indicate importance empathy mentor mentee adults authority seen prepared work level terms young person subsequent relationship appeared intimate confiding instances ability bend rules help young person seen important developing relationship showing young person special go boundaries allotted role form personal relationship similarly identified important instances kind mentor sought young person relationship developed institutionally mentor powerful position relation young person evolving relationship seen mentee elements reciprocity frequently help compared favourably offered empathetic adults number young people relationships significant helping come terms problems enabling succeed academically mentoring process undertaken individual individuals group description form relationship demonstrated number youth work settings framework mentoring role concerned dealing young table 1 typology perceived mentoring forms mentoring classic individual best friend peer group long term forms 1 team 3 4 risk 2 5 gender male female female context home based youth home based street action home groups street life events empathy acceptance rehearsal managing recognition recognition peer social reputations life aspiring group action identity crises role youth life style empathy models culture values qualities advisor mentor reciprocity reciprocity reciprocity sought guide empathetic equality equality nonidentified parent conformity outsider categorical represent comparisons groups 195 young people mentoring people terms fitting adult programmes groups small intimate based loose network friends drawing individuals away friendship peer groups building relationships adults carried group setting group members described relationship essentially different adults authoritarian open negotiation concerned matters discussed contexts illustrations group 15 year olds living rural market town two youth workers identified offering mentoring role providing support setting limits f listen l sit listen ll give honest opinion ll tell ll give honest opinion youth workers seen respect youth culture enabled accepted young people equally important proven interest young people willing meet young people territory hanging street v aye go friday night know doing kind like get wi crowd like mum dad re house time don t go don t know ve l g re cool point acceptance group identity readiness deal group individual issues c i ve met mum dad like cos re cool sit talk v know turning v talked l problems boys l best friends laughs v mmhmm agrees laughs recurring feature special nature relationship particular group young people considered went youth worker group relationship f m l alright re like folk l cos know like know expect b get trouble ll help f asked relationship differed adults awareness constraints parents role highlighted m re parents i don t think don t responsibility looking f re job l yeah youth workers b re trained deal p don t bonding parents stuff m cos know parents like re concerned interpretation evidence form mentoring derived groups girls groups girls majority groups boys cite youth worker important influence principally instrumental terms 196 k philip l b hendry helping specific crisis continuing relationship crisis discussed individuals youth workers mentioned relation young people induction drug illicit activities old hands offer advice relevant information youth groups members engaged pursuits mentoring role inducting newcomers practices rituals important feature dynamics group central relationship recognition acceptance group identity existing friendship network individuals talk youth worker issues approached group issue highly personal group members likely aware discussed group independently mentor instances issue brought group youth worker present friend friend mentoring description highly gendered type mentoring boys acknowledging friends important influences lives number young women defined risk cited close friends providing support helping come terms problems adults friends age played important continuing role counselling advising went moral support embodying elements challenge advice relationships defined reciprocal highly intimate described context wider groups friends gradations trust network illustrations young woman found father affair distraught felt misjudged mother felt unable discuss i talked friends i spoke teachers couldn t trust i spoke wasn t adult age i p7 i didn t know young woman brought care abused older brother best friend trustworthy person information disclosed done default felt asking right questions somebody asked i able break cry know tell asked i blockin i actually told m friend i living said ll speak adult i didn t know insisting i tell i pleased i told m i wasn t pleased i told social worker wasn t okay i get i mean i told i sittin i i felt sort dirty know oh fault know groups claimed depend friendships heavily form relationship friends seen likely seen bad influence young people felt able disagree follow different pathways remain friends interviewer idea friends lead things l v bad i mean mates bad influence 197 young people mentoring people i know bad ve got bad points l uh huh bad influence keep away person go d bad goin know i mean v i know bad influence don t necessarily keep best mate interpretation ability trust friends confidential information share anxieties two fundamental reasons confiding looking support guidance close friends adults sense idea abdicating responsibility bad influence rejected favour argument choices open deciding courses action advice proffered rejected jeopardising relationship reliance friends important means establishing autonomy choice friends action references made adult inability see surface didn t fit model suitable friends imply adults parents viewed important arbiters matters relationships control remains pair decision taken call adult support advice acted important feature respecting confidences retention control friendship pairing characteristic feature model mutual reciprocity rough equality power partners shared implicit understanding involvement adults carefully negotiated peer group mentoring description evidence peer groups providing mentoring framework providing individual mentoring group identified appropriate forms support action clearly demonstrated friendship groups long standing different forms young women young men illustration involved illicit drug taking awareness subtleties drug misuse important trust guys re buy somebody know wouldn t bad stuff trust hand young women made greater claims group providing reference point maintaining reputations supporting damaged accusations boys girls adults settings understanding mores different youth cultures vital component interviewer expect different things pals parents adults p friends expect friends quiet agreement rest group m cos re closest interviewer sort things expect m listen give honest answer p help backstab f help don t quite lot somebody interpretation style mentoring instances response inability adults understand realities lives group members peer group 198 k philip l b hendry important group members involved activities disapproved adults drug taking underage drinking time general consensus evident groups adults seen hypocritical attitudes young people actions values style frequently cited contexts groups felt unfairly treated articulated aspect living settings needs adolescents considered planned new housing estates peer group acted forum exploring strategies dealing adults notably teachers parents setting developing consensus style appropriate behaviour young women exploring dilemmas posed manage acceptable identity recurring topic long term relationship mentoring description closely related classic mentor long term relationship wide range adults baby sitters family friends perceived safe repository confidential information knowledge illustrations young woman trendy young aunt involved club scene provided strong support advice tactics dealing adults i anyway auntie m like speak things like personal like big agony aunt comes second excerpt mentor seen fulfilling parental role i ve got friend basically baby sit i little lived street mum dad moved mum dad moved street like big sister quite people say look like came guide mother night mum re related i get third mentor acts mediator mum sort thing weird like went rough patch life like came school got totally involved drugs stuff got engaged guy beat heaps stuff like mum like knows drugs talks mum stuff like i m talking wasn t d arguing interpretation central mentoring style grows longterm relationship adult known members family identified relatively exclusive relationship young person mentor able act mediator young person family times crisis young woman described subtlety complexity saying mentor report back mother requested requests non verbal mentor provides security source continuing support challenge young person mentor experience breaking rules trouble young person seen attractive respect model primary mentoring relationship described freedman 1993 different classic mentor mentor perceived young person deriving support problems concerns outset relationship young person social network significant suggesting hidden 199 young people mentoring relationships auster 1984 contention reputation sponsor enhanced success prote´ge turned arguing prote´ge´ street credibility enhanced tame mentor style relationship likely incorporate element reciprocity outset contrast classic mentoring relationship developed time see lunt et al 1992 concluding comments interpretation findings presented possible propose typology mentoring range forms proposed young people interviewed see table 1 suggest variety mentoring forms provide new insights different kinds adult adolescent relationships influences young people psychosocial development looking mentoring young people seeking relationships viewed active process negotiating appropriate social groupings mapping conditions scope acceptable support encouragement guidance adolescence presenting five forms mentoring important offer number qualifying points firstly five types outlined drawn interpreted interviews young people represent range helping relationships described sample discussing replying questioning see methodology section secondly instances overlap mentoring forms noticeable adolescents descriptions purposes theoretical clarity findings five types presented separately discrete forms mentoring thirdly order give indication salience forms young people terms instances seldom outlines aims research methodological approach taken present study deemed inappropriate extend quantification verbal mode table 1 shows varying forms mentoring significant different groups young people young people sample stressed importance long term relationships trust assured negotiation possible young people experienced important life events clear need support rooted mentor ability empathise young person clearly element study focused positive aspects mentoring perceived young people equally negative dimensions identified examined stage study addition shared elements mentoring important variations evident particular process mentoring appeared highly gendered young men likely 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