Summary / Abstract

Title: Adolescents who offend

Synopsis: Journal of Adolescence 1996 19 1 4 Introduction Adolescents who offend JULIET LYON To work effectively with particulary challenging adolescents is a difficult task Professionals in services with troubled... offenders, adolescents, intervention, crime, violence, parenthood, peer, practice, therapists, bullying, alcohol, psychotherapy, delinquent, policy, treatment, systematic evaluations, prevention, youth crime, nature, considerations, Lyon, prison, schools, poor, parenthood training, risk, self, context, adults, implications,

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journal adolescence 1996 19 1 4 introduction adolescents offend juliet lyon work effectively particulary challenging adolescents difficult task professionals services troubled troublesome teenagers need keep balanced perspective develop considered approach research community important role enabling professionals maintain perspective providing clear information nature characteristics young offenders family circumstances societal conditions pathways crime cross cultural studies shed new light youth crime prevention intervention strategies systematic evaluations specific treatment approaches essential development sound policy practice special issue journal adolescence places particular emphasis implications research findings application research practice title special issue adolescents offend attempts convey sense adolescents capacity offend adults adults capacity offended adolescents development process important outset place considerations offending behaviour youth crime normative context maintain thorough understanding adolescence essential basis work study young offenders lyon coleman 1994 waplington 1994 view endorsed bailey paper adolescents murder states need know define normal functioning development safely intervene designated abnormal committed murderous act taking account adolescent development general important maintain critical awareness broader societal conditions individual development behaviour observed interpreted context family peer relations environment culture economic political considerations emphasis contextual approach endorses view adolescent research focus person central special issue adolescent research european perspective stattin 1995 adolescents offend young people commit criminal offences get caught mcquoid points northern ireland brief report international self reported delinquency study degree law breaking regarded normal adolescence gradually reducing onset maturity corroborated full isrd study comparing prevalence frequency youth crime 13 countries junger tas et al 1994 acknowledged degree offending behaviour constitutes normal growing important identify risk continuing deepening involvement crime researchers 0140 1971 96 01000104 12 00 0 1996 association professionals services adolescents 2 j lyon significant role play determining protective factors enable young people turn backs criminal career hagell newburn assert offending behaviour england widespread adolescence frequent persistent offending rarer examined family social contexts 74 young people predominantly young men arrested frequently police found high levels family disruption wide variety current past living arrangements teenagers interviewed involved constructive day day activities hagell newburn extend known family social worlds psychological health re offenders raise issues important designing appropriate interventions nonincarcerated offenders key implications arising research concern need training employment opportunities importance mother child relationship linked role professionals supporting strengthening family ties parenthood training seen key intervention work young offenders lastly importance peers implications high rates drug alcohol peer groups emphasiged disproportionate experiences loss trauma undergone frequent offenders interviewed hagell newburn echoed study section 53 serious incarcerated offenders england wales commissioned prince trust boswell 1995 bailey unique 5 year cohort study 20 young murderers charts backgrounds characterized mental illness violence family growing body literature farrington 1995 documents family disruption violence abuse poor parental supervision monitoring lack warmth early years important precursers offending behaviour adolescents presents compelling case carefully evaluated experiments early intervention parenthood training young offenders offer unusual opportunity break cycle crime caddle 1991 utting et al 1993 central theme special issue application research policy practice helpful focus particular concerns work young offenders alcohol drug abuse problematic general adolescent population balding 1993 associated offending lower awareness consequences behaviour time increase motivation commit crime need fund alcohol drug habit yeoman griffiths draw attention brief report juveniles resort crime resource machine gambling activities sigurdsson gudjonsson provided interesting study psychological characteristics juvenile alcohol drug users iceland detailed study effective treatment young offenders abuse alcohol taking account personality factors psychological characteristics meta analysis rehabilitation programmes recently published britain mcmurran hollin 1993 second major cause concern bullying young people institutions widespread schools olweus 1993 endemic penal establishments connell farrington reviewed research bullying victimization schoolchildren developed individual interview questions measure bullying victimization accurately incarcerated young offenders interview schedule tested small sample young male prisoners ontario canada offers opportunity gather full complete data obtainable anonymous group 3 adolescents offend administered self completed questionnaires essential define nature extent bullying tackling problem provides valuable tool lead effective intervention young prison population england wales poor coping institutional pressures bullying inmates seen significant factors high incidence suicide self harm leibling 1991 clearly place treatment development institutions fear violence lack trust prevail violence prevention vital concern policy makers practitioners researchers united states homicide second leading cause death adolescents 15 34 year old males highest risk non fatal assault henggeler cunningham pickrel schoenwald brondino produced helpful overview multi systemic therapy demonstrate mst led long term reductions criminal activity violence young high risk perpetrators violence work supports viability public health approach youth crime reduction mst primary prevention strategy identifies counteracts risk factors reinforces protective factors interventions individually tailored developmentally appropriate aims empower parents young people deal effectively independently future difficulties henggeler colleagues assert anti social behaviour multidetermined important correlates pertaining individual low cognitive functioning poor social skills family factors encompass low warmth ineffective discipline parental criminal behaviour peer group association deviant peers critical presence criminal sub culture community poor academic performance high drop rates characterize school functioning approach select train therapists make positive therapeutic alliance parents guardians therapists family focus building competencies problem solving developing resources considerable emphasis therapist accountability mst therapists expected takes engage family bring enduring change approach systematically evaluated time appears offer real possibility effective violence reduction undoubtedly done intervene actively change behaviour attitudes outcomes poor adolescents need enabled reduce impulsivity see consequences actions increase empathy create sense personal responsibility worth young people need support adults need assistance economic independence literature review follow studies study 97 young men 9 years discharge juvenile detention centres america six adult criminal records indicates containment young offenders adequate lewis et al 1994 richards sullivan comment paper explores appropriateness individual psychotherapy delinquents imperative therapeutic action based dire consequences inaction give detailed exploration nature individual psychotherapy 47 australian offenders mean age 16 charting significant changes attitude behaviour believe treatment approach offers secure base comprises consistency regularity responsiveness reliability intervention prevention active reform need informed research significant questions remain answered field adolescent offending needs change society large local community peer group 4 j lyon family individual focused treatment initiatives sustainable effect need long term follow studies determine works young offenders particular limited literature work young female offenders insufficient regard gender issues culture race implications appropriate effective intervention largely neglected despite incarceration disproportionate numbers black young people england wales lastly referred early prevention experiments identification risk vulnerability potential parenting initiatives parenthood training demands volatile nature work young offenders pull practitioners working reactively reflectively media presentation public perception rising youth crime put pressure politicians opt quick necessarily considered solutions good quality accessible research information systematic evaluation essential basis sound policy practice references balding j 1993 young people 1992 exeter exeter schools health education unit university exeter boswell g 1995 violent victims prevalence abuse loss lives section 53 offenders london prince trust caddle d 1991 parenthood training young offenders evaluation courses young offender institutions london home office research planning unit paper 63 farrington d p 1995 development offending antisocial behaviour childhood key findings cambridge study delinquent development journal child psychology psychiatry 560 6 junger tas t terlouw g j klein m 1994 delinquent behaviour young people western world amsterdam kugler press leibling 1991 suicide self injury young offenders custody suicide awareness support unit h m prison service lewis d o yeager c lovely r stein cobham portorreal c 1994 clinical follow delinquent males ignored vulnerabilities unmet needs perpetuation violence journal american academy child adolescent psychiatry 33 518 528 lyon j coleman j 1994 nature adolescence working young people custody h m prison service trust study adolescence crown copyright mcmurran m hollin c 1993 young offenders alcohol related crime practitioner guidebook chichester wiley olweus d 1993 bullying school know oxford blackwell utting d bright j henricson c 1993 crime family london family policy studies centre waplington d 1994 understanding adolescents key concept constructing regime young offenders h m y o i lancaster farms prison service journal issue 96, com_apnet_jado_jado_1996_0001, KnowledgeStor, Knowledge-Stor,